University Libraries

Policies: Library Services

Course Reserves | Library Instructional and Reference Services | Interlibrary Loan | Internal Document Delivery Services | Copy Services

Course Reserves

General Information

The University Libraries supports instruction with course reserves and other collection access services. The primary function of these services is to assure that students and teachers will have timely access to course-related library resources.

Materials may be copied and made available for course reserves when they are:

1. in the public domain; or
2. used with permission from the copyright holder; or
3. used under the provisions of a contract or license agreement, noting that agreements may differ from, and often take precedence over, what is allowed under copyright law; or
4. used under the provision of Fair Use, U.S. Copyright Act, 17 U.S.C. Section 107, as outlined in the Classroom Guidelines or as determined using a case-by-case four-factor analysis.

The Libraries retains the right to refuse materials for reserve, or remove materials already on reserve, on the basis of law-related or administrative concerns.

The following standards will be applied when copying copyrighted works for course reserves under the provisions of Fair Use (Section 107). This includes, but is not limited to, musical works (scores, lyrics, recorded performances), spoken word audio or other audiovisual recordings. The Libraries' application of fair use is predicated on its General Principles of Fair Use in Education.

Instructor Responsibilities

  • All materials submitted by instructors must support course-related teaching, scholarship, or research.
  • Instructors submitting materials are responsible for evaluating, on a case-by-case basis, whether the use of a copyrighted work requires permission or qualifies as fair use. When permissions are needed, instructors or their departments are expected to make any required arrangements.
  • Whenever copying original materials is involved, whether the copies are made by instructors or by the library, only the amount needed to accomplish the specific educational purpose should be copied. In consultation with library staff, instructors will determine any limits on the amount of material to be used.

User Responsibilities

  • All materials placed on course reserves are to be used solely for non-commercial educational purposes in connection with designated courses.
  • Copyrighted materials made available through course reserves may be copied for teaching, scholarly, or research purposes, and should not be reproduced for further distribution.

Library Responsibilities

  • The Library will provide information resources and consultation to instructors to assist them in evaluating the qualifications of a specific use as fair use.
  • Access to materials on course reserves will be limited to students currently enrolled and their instructors.
  • Copies made will display a notice stating that the work may be protected by copyright and, when available, the notice of copyright that appears on the original work.
  • Materials will be removed from course reserves when they are no longer required to support designated courses.

    These standards were reviewed by the University of Minnesota's Office of the General Counsel and approved by the University Libraries' Leadership Council in February 2004.

    Library Instructional and Reference Services

    General Information

    The University Libraries provides instructional and reference services in support of the University's three-fold mission of research and discovery, teaching and learning, and outreach and public service. The primary function of these services is to assist and instruct users in accessing, evaluating, and using information, and to further their understanding of the economic, legal, and social issues attendant within those processes.

    Materials may be copied for use in instructional and reference services when they are:

    1. in the public domain; or
    2. used with permission from the copyright holder; or
    3. used under the provisions of a contract or license agreement, noting that agreements may differ from, and often take precedence over, what is allowed under copyright law; or
    4a. for library instructional purposes, used under the provision of Fair Use, U.S. Copyright Act, 17 U.S.C. Section 107, as outlined in the Classroom Guidelines, or as determined using a case-by-case four-factor analysis; or
    4b. for reference services, used under the provisions of Library Copying, U.S. Copyright Act, 17 U.S.C. Section 108 or, to the extent possible for University-related instructional or scholarly purposes, under Fair Use, 17 U.S.C. Section 107, as outlined in the Classroom Guidelines, or as determined using a case-by-case four-factor analysis.

    The following standards will be applied when copying copyrighted materials under the provision of Fair Use (Section 107) and Library Copying for Private Study (Section 108) in library instructional and reference services, and other library services that support University teaching, learning, and research. The Libraries' application of fair use is predicated on its General Principles of Fair Use in Education.

    Library Responsibilities Pertaining to Library Instruction Activities

    • Library staff are responsible for determining, on a case-by-case basis, whether the use of a copyrighted work qualifies as fair use. When permissions are needed, staff are expected to make any required arrangements.
    • Only the amount needed to accomplish the specific educational or reference service-related purpose should be copied.
    • Reasonable efforts must be made to ensure that access to copied materials is limited to the recipient(s) of the specific instructional or reference service activity.
    • Copies made will display a notice stating that the work may be protected by copyright and, when available, the notice of copyright that appears on the original work.

    Library Responsibilities Pertaining to Reference Services

    • The library will not make and distribute copies of copyrighted works if it has notice that the copy will be used for anything other than private study, scholarship, or research purposes.
    • Copying will be done without any purpose of direct or indirect commercial advantage.
    • Library staff will determine appropriate limits on materials to be copied and distributed, and will not knowingly provide to a patron more than a) a single copy of any item, under most circumstances;* and b) one article or other contribution to a copyrighted collection or periodical issue, or a small part of any other copyrighted work, under most circumstances.* The library will consult the patron in making these determinations when necessary.
    • The library, under most circumstances,* will not copy musical works; pictorial, graphic, or sculptural works; or motion pictures or audiovisual works, with the exception of audiovisual works dealing with news and pictures and graphics published as illustrations, diagrams, or similar adjuncts to works that can be copied (e.g. if an article can be copied, then the illustration or diagram in the article can also be copied).
    • Copies made will display a notice stating that the work may be protected by copyright and, when available, the notice of copyright that appears on the original work.

    User Responsibilities

    • All materials used in library reference and instructional services are to be used solely for non-commercial, educational, or personal research purposes.
    • Copyrighted materials made available through library reference and instructional services should not be reproduced for further distribution.

    Notes:
    * Exceptions may include qualifying uses for University-related instructional or scholarly purposes, under Fair Use, 17 U.S.C. Section 107.

    These standards were reviewed by the University of Minnesota's Office of the General Counsel and approved by the University Libraries' Leadership Council in February 2004.

    Interlibrary Loan

    General Information

    The University Libraries provides interlibrary loan borrowing services to current students, staff and faculty of the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, to support the teaching, research and service missions of the University by providing access to material not owned in the University Libraries' collections. The University Libraries also provides interlibrary loan lending services to other libraries.

    Materials may be copied and distributed through interlibrary loan when they are:
    1. in the public domain; or
    2. used with permission from the copyright holder; or
    3. used under the provisions of a contract or license agreement, noting that agreements may differ from, and often take precedence over, what is allowed under copyright law; or
    4. used under the provisions of Library Copying, U.S. Copyright Act, 17 U.S.C. Section 108 or, to the extent possible for University-related instructional or scholarly purposes, under Fair Use, 17 U.S.C. Section 107, as outlined in the Classroom Guidelines, or as determined using a case-by-case four-factor analysis.

    The Libraries retains the right to refuse interlibrary loan requests on the basis of law-related or administrative concerns.

    The following standards will be applied when copying copyrighted materials for interlibrary loan services under the provisions of Library Copying (Section 108) and, when appropriate, Fair Use (Section 107).

    User Responsibilities

    • Users should request copies of copyrighted works only to serve personal study, scholarship, or research needs.
    • Users should request only the amount of material needed.
    • Copies of copyrighted materials made available through interlibrary loan services become the property of the user and should not be reproduced for further distribution under most circumstances.*

    Library Responsibilities -- Borrowing Services

    • The library will not request and distribute copies of copyrighted works if it has notice that the copy will be used for anything other than private study, scholarship, or research purposes.
    • Library staff will determine appropriate limits on materials to be distributed, and will not knowingly provide to a patron more than a) a single copy of any item, under most circumstances;* and b) one article or other contribution to a copyrighted collection or periodical issue, or a small part of any other copyrighted work, under most circumstances.* When necessary, the library will consult with the patron in making these determinations.
    • The library will not request and receive interlibrary loan copies for distribution in such quantities so as to result, in purpose or effect, in substitution for a subscription to or purchase of such work. Relevant guidelines, such as CONTU (U.S. National Commission on New Technological Uses of Copyrighted Works), may be applied to help the library determine and operate within appropriate limits.
    • The library, under most circumstances,* will not accept requests to copy musical works, pictorial, graphic, or sculptural works, motion pictures or other audiovisual works. In response to a request to copy an entire work or substantial part of a work, the library will conduct a reasonable investigation to conclude that a copy cannot be obtained at a fair market price.
    • Library staff will determine and indicate copyright compliance on all requests transmitted for interlibrary borrowing. In doing so, library staff will indicate either CCL-Conforms to the Copyright Law, or CCG-Conforms to the CONTU Copyright Guidelines.
    • A Notice of Copyright will be posted where requests are received and displayed on all request forms.

    Library Responsibilities -- Lending Services

    • The library will not make and distribute copies of copyrighted works if it has notice that the copy will be used for anything other than private study, scholarship, or research purposes.
    • Determination of overall copyright compliance for requests from other libraries is the responsibility of the requesting library. The Libraries will only fulfill requests that indicate copyright compliance (either CCG-Conforms to the CONTU Copyright Guidelines, or CCL-Conforms to the Copyright Law).
    • Copies made will display a notice stating that the work may be protected by copyright and, when available, the notice of copyright that appears on the original work.

      Notes:
      * Exceptions may include qualifying uses for University-related instructional or scholarly purposes, under Fair Use, 17 U.S.C. Section 107.

      These standards were reviewed by the University of Minnesota's Office of the General Counsel and approved by the University Libraries' Leadership Council in February 2004.

      Internal Document Delivery Services

      General Information

      The University Libraries provides document delivery services to current students, staff and faculty of the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities. The primary purpose is to support the teaching, research, and service missions of the University by providing access to material owned in the University Libraries' collections.

      Materials may be copied and distributed through internal document delivery when they are:

      1. in the public domain; or
      2. used with permission from the copyright holder; or
      3. used under the provisions of a contract or license agreement, noting that agreements may differ from, and often take precedence over, what is allowed under copyright law; or
      4. used under the provisions of Library Copying, U.S. Copyright Act, 17 U.S.C. Section 108 or, to the extent possible for University-related instructional or scholarly purposes, under Fair Use, 17 U.S.C. Section 107, as outlined in the Classroom Guidelines, or as determined using a case-by-case four-factor analysis.

      The Libraries retains the right to refuse document delivery requests on the basis of law-related or administrative concerns.

      The following standards will be applied when copying copyrighted materials for internal document delivery services under the provisions of Library Copying (Section 108) and, when appropriate, Fair Use (Section 107).

      User Responsibilities

      • Users should request copies of copyrighted works only to serve personal study, scholarship, or research needs.
      • Users should request only the amount of material needed.
      • Copies of copyrighted materials made available through internal document delivery services become the property of the user and should not be reproduced for further distribution under most circumstances.*

      Library Responsibilities

      • The library will not make and distribute copies of copyrighted works if it has notice that the copy will be used for anything other than private study, scholarship, or research purposes.
      • Copying activities will be conducted without any purpose of direct or indirect commercial advantage.
      • Library staff will determine appropriate limits on materials to be copied and distributed, and will not knowingly provide to a patron more than a) a single copy of any item, under most circumstances;* and b) one article or other contribution to a copyrighted collection or periodical issue, or a small part of any other copyrighted work, under most circumstances.* The library will consult the patron in making these determinations when necessary.
      • The library, under most circumstances,* will not copy musical works; pictorial, graphic, or sculptural works; or motion pictures or audiovisual works, with the exception of audiovisual works dealing with news and pictures and graphics published as illustrations, diagrams, or similar adjuncts to works that can be copied (e.g. if an article can be copied, then the illustration or diagram in the article can also be copied).
      • In response to a request to copy an entire work or substantial part of a work, the library will conduct a reasonable investigation to conclude that a copy cannot be obtained at a fair market price.
      • Copies made will display a notice stating that the work may be protected by copyright and, when available, the notice of copyright that appears on the original work.
      • A Notice of Copyright will also be posted where requests are received and displayed on all request forms.

      Notes:
      * Exceptions may include qualifying uses for University-related instructional or scholarly purposes, under Fair Use, 17 U.S.C. Section 107.

      These standards were reviewed by the University of Minnesota's Office of the General Counsel and approved by the University Libraries' Leadership Council in February 2004.

      Copy Services

      General Information

      The University Libraries provides copies of materials for private study, scholarship, or research purposes for library users through its copy services.

      Materials may be copied and distributed through copy services when they are:

      1. in the public domain; or
      2. used with permission from the copyright holder; or
      3. used under the provisions of a contract or license agreement, noting that agreements may differ from, and often take precedence over, what is allowed under copyright law; or
      4. used under the provisions of Library Copying, U.S. Copyright Act, 17 U.S.C. Section 108 or, to the extent possible for University-related instructional or scholarly purposes, under Fair Use, 17 U.S.C. Section 107, as outlined in the Classroom Guidelines, or as determined using a case-by-case four-factor analysis

      The Libraries retains the right to refuse copy services requests on the basis of law-related or administrative concerns.

      The following standards will be applied when copying copyrighted materials for copy services under the provisions of Library Copying (Section 108) and, when appropriate, Fair Use (Section 107).

      User Responsibilities

      • Users should request copies of copyrighted works only to serve personal study, scholarship, or research needs.
      • Users should request only the amount of material needed.
      • Copies of copyrighted materials made available through copy services become the property of the user and should not be reproduced for further distribution under most circumstances.*

      Library Responsibilities

      • The library will not make and distribute copies of copyrighted works if it has notice that the copy will be used for anything other than private study, scholarship, or research purposes.
      • Copying activities will be conducted without any purpose of direct or indirect commercial advantage.
      • Library staff will determine appropriate limits on materials to be copied and distributed, and will not knowingly provide to a patron more than a) a single copy of any item, under most circumstances;* and b) one article or other contribution to a copyrighted collection or periodical issue, or a small part of any other copyrighted work, under most circumstances.* The library will consult the patron in making these determinations when necessary.
      • The library, under most circumstances,* will not copy musical works; pictorial, graphic, or sculptural works; or motion pictures or audiovisual works, with the exception of audiovisual works dealing with news and pictures and graphics published as illustrations, diagrams, or similar adjuncts to works that can be copied (e.g. if an article can be copied, then the illustration or diagram in the article can also be copied).
      • In response to a request to copy an entire work or substantial part of a work, the library will conduct a reasonable investigation to conclude that a copy cannot be obtained at a fair market price.
      • Copies made will display a notice stating that the work may be protected by copyright and, when available, the notice of copyright that appears on the original work.
      • A Notice of Copyright will also be posted where requests are received and displayed on all request forms.

      Notes:
      * Exceptions may include qualifying uses for University-related instructional or scholarly purposes, under Fair Use, 17 U.S.C. Section 107.

      These standards were reviewed by the University of Minnesota's Office of the General Counsel and approved by the University Libraries' Leadership Council in February 2004.

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This web site presents information about copyright law. The University Libraries make every effort to assure the accuracy of this information but do not offer it as counsel or legal advice. Consult an attorney for advice concerning your specific situation.