Epidemiology for public health practice

History and scope of epidemiology. Introduction -- Epidemiology defined -- Foundations of epidemiology -- Historical antecedents of epidemiology -- Recent applications of epidemiology -- Conclusion -- Practical applications of epidemiology. Introduction -- Applications for the assessment of the health status of poulations and delivery of health services -- Applications relevant to disease etiology -- Conclusion -- Appendix 2 - Leading causes of death and rates for those causes in 1900 and 2003 -- Measures of morbidity and mortality used in epidemiology. Introduction -- Definitions of count, ratio, proportion, and rate -- Risk versus rate -- Interrelationship between prevalence and incidence -- Applications of incidence data -- Crude rates -- Specific rates -- Adjusted rates -- Conclusion -- Appendix 3 - data for study questions 2-4 -- Descriptive epidemiology: person, place, time. Introduction -- Characteristics of persons -- Characteristics of place -- Characteristics of time -- Conclusion -- Appendix 4 - project: descriptive epidemiology of a selected health problem -- Sources of data for use in epidemiology. Introduction -- Criteria for the quality and utility of epidemiologic data -- Computerized bibliographic databases -- Confidentiality, sharing of data, and record linkage -- Statistics derived from the vital registration system -- Reportable disease statistics -- Screening surveys -- Disease registries -- Morbidity surveys of the general population -- Insurance data -- Hospital data -- Diseases treated in special clinics and hospitals -- Data from physicians’ practices -- Absenteeism data -- School health programs -- Morbidity in the armed forces: data on active personnel and veterans -- Other sources of data relevant to epidemiologic studies -- Conclusion -- Study designs: ecologic, cross-sectional, case-control. Introduction -- Observational versus experimental approaches in epidemiology -- Overview of study designs used in epidemiology -- Ecologic studies -- Cross-sectional studies -- Case-control studies -- Conclusion -- Study designs: cohort studies. Introduction -- Cohort studies defined -- Sampling and cohort formation options -- Sampling and cohort formation options -- Temporal differences in cohort designs -- Practical considerations -- Measures of interpretation and examples -- Summary of cohort studies -- Comparisons of observational designs -- Conclusion -- Experimental study designs. Introduction -- Hierarchy of study designs -- Intervention studies -- Clinical trials -- Community trials -- Conclusion -- Measures of effect. Introduction -- Absolute effects -- Relative effects -- Statistical measures of effect -- Evaluating epidemiologic associations -- Models of causal relationships -- Conclusion -- Appendix 9 - Cohort study data for coffee use and anxiety -- Data interpretation issues. Introduction -- Validity of study designs -- Sources of error in epidemiologic research -- Techniques to reduce bias -- Methods to control confounding -- Bias in analysis and publication -- Conclusion -- Screening for disease in the community. Introduction -- Screening for disease -- Appropriate situations for screening tests and programs -- Characteristics of a good screening test -- Evaluation of screening tests -- Sources of unreliability and invalidity -- Measures of the validity of screening tests -- Effects of prevalence of disease on screening test results -- Relationship between sensitivity and specificity -- Evaluation of screening programs -- Issues in the classification of morbidity and morality -- Conclusion -- Appendix 11 - Data for problem 6 -- Epidemiology of infectious diseases. Introduction -- Agents of infectious disease -- Characteristics of infectious disease agents -- Hosts -- The environment -- Means of transmission: directly or indirectly from reservoir -- Measures of disease outbreaks -- Procedures used in the investigation of infectious disease outbreaks 00 Epidemiologically significant infectious diseases in the community -- Conclusion -- Appendix 12 - Data from a foodborne illness outbreak in a college cafeteria -- Epidemiologic aspects of work and the environment. Introduction -- Health effects associated with environmental hazards -- Study designs used in environmental epidemiology -- Toxicologic concepts related to environmental epidemiology -- Types of agents -- Environmental hazards found in the work setting -- Noteworthy community environmental health hazards -- Conclusion -- Molecular and genetic epidemiology. Introduction -- Definitions and distinctions: molecular versus genetic epidemiology -- Epidemiologic evidence for genetic factors -- Causes of familial aggregation -- Shared family environment and familial aggregation -- Gene mapping: Segregation and linkage analysis -- Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) -- Linkage disequilibrium revisited: haplotypes -- Application of genes in epidemiologic designs -- Genetics and public health -- Conclusion -- Psychologic, behavioral, and social epidemiology. Introduction -- Research designs used in psychologic, behavioral, and social epidemiology -- The social context of health -- Independent variables -- Moderating factors in the stress-illness relationship -- Outcome variables: physical health, mental health, affective states -- Conclusion -- Epidemiology as a profession. Introduction -- Specializations within epidemiology -- Career roles for epidemiologists -- Epidemiology associations and journals -- Competencies required of epidemiologists -- Resources for education and employment -- Professional ethics in epidemiology -- Conclusion -- Appendix A - Guide to the critical appraisal of an epidemiologic/public health research article -- Appendix B - Answers to selected study questions.

Location: TC Bio-Medical Library WA105 F912e 2009

Author: Robert H. Friis, Thomas A. Sellers

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