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Anthropology: Open Access Repositories for Data & Research

We are seeing the beginning of a new, very different publishing model for 21st century scholarship: Open Access. Peter Stuber, one of the leaders of this movement to reclaim scholarship from the private sector, defines open access (OA) as "literature [that] is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions." There are more and more repositories being set up across the globe where dissertations, article pre/post-prints, data and other information can be stored - and available for use (with proper attribution) by other researchers. The following is the beginnings of a list of such resources available for students, staff and faculty here at the University.

Table of Contents:

The University Digital Conservancy: University of Minnesota's Own Repository
What we used to call the University Archives has morphed into the 21st century as a place where all types of information, data and research can be stored. Our repository will not only preserve these wonderful resources, but give you a permanent location - that won't change when publishing houses are bought/sold or when someone changes jobs. You can search the UDC's website or people can find your work in Google-types of web searches. More information on UDC is at this link.

Crowd Sourcing - A New Approach to Research!
Today research is global, the internet is a key tool and resources are finding new audiences, new discoveries, new alliances and collaborations. Here are just a few interesting examples of this important trend.
  • Temple Mount Sifting Project Unidentified Finds Research Forum
    Find something interesting in the field, but you aren't quite sure what it might be? Amateurs and experts alike can try their hand at analysis with this online resource. As EDUCAUSE noted this website allows "users to publicly comment on digital photographs of as-yet-unidentified small finds from the excavations. The comments posted often spur dialogue between excavator and commenter, serving not only as scholarly discussions in and of themselves but also as a visual display of the scholarly engagement process, something that is equally illuminating. One can easily imagine implementing such user-driven participation in a massive database of archaeological data. Mining the comments alone might spawn a thesis for a future anthropologist, science historian, computer scientist, or computational linguist."
The Importance of the Historical Record
If data collection, analysis and professional management is a new area for you, check out some of these sites for information and advice.
  • Council for the Preservation of Anthropological Records (CoPAR)
    The Council for the Preservation of Anthropological Records is dedicated to helping anthropologists, librarians, archivists, information specialists and others preserve and provide access to the record of human diversity and the history of the discipline.
  • Journal of Open Archaeology Data (JOAD)
    The Journal of Open Archaeology Data (JOAD) features peer reviewed data papers describing archaeology datasets with high reuse potential. We work with a number of specialist and institutional data repositories to ensure that the associated data are professionally archived, preserved, and openly available. Equally importantly, the data and the papers are citable, and reuse is tracked.
Search Engines & Megasites to Help You Locate Repositories
Today, open repositories are coming online daily. Finding the best place to store or find content can be challenging. Each of these search engines can make your task a bit easier
  • Consortium of European Social Science Data Archives (CESSDA)
    "The primary objectives of CESSDA are to facilitate and promote more and wider use of high-quality data in social, economic and political research and in turn, improve our understanding of ongoing societal processes, the problems involved and the solutions available. The vision of CESSDA is to provide a full scale sustainable research infrastructure that enables the research community to conduct high-quality research which in turn leads to effective solutions to the major challenges facing society today."
  • DataHub
    This "free, powerful data management platform from the Open Knowledge Foundation...is a tool for managing and publishing collections of data. It is used by national and local governments, research institutions, and other organisations which collect a lot of data. With its powerful search and faceting, users can browse and find the data they need, and preview it using maps, graphs and tables - whether they are developers, journalists, researchers, NGOs, citizens or your own colleagues."
  • DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals (OA)
    Directory of Open Access Journals covers free, full text, quality controlled scientific and scholarly journals of all subjects and languages. There are 5625 journals in the directory. Currently 2398 journals are searchable at the article level; ~468,000 articles are included in the DOAJ service.
  • OAISter Authentication Required
    Union catalog of digital resources. Contains digital resources from open archive collections. Represents multidisciplinary resources from more than 1000 contributors worldwide. Records contain a digital object link allowing users access to the object in a single click.
  • OLAC, the Open Language Archives Community
    "OLAC, the Open Language Archives Community, is an international partnership of institutions and individuals who are creating a worldwide virtual library of language resources by: (i) developing consensus on best current practice for the digital archiving of language resources, and (ii) developing a network of interoperating repositories and services for housing and accessing such resources."
  • Open Access Anthropology
    This is less of a directory than it is a discussion-based blog that talks about key issues, available repositories and related issues. Worth looking at and bookmarking - join the discussion!
  • OpenDOAR: The Directory of Open Access Repositories
    "OpenDOAR is primarily a service to enhance and support the academic and research activities of the global community. OpenDOAR maintains a comprehensive and authoritative list of institutional and subject-based repositories. It also encompasses archives set up by funding agencies like the National Institutes for Health in the USA or the Wellcome Trust in the UK and Europe. Users of the service are able to analyse repositories by location, type, the material they hold and other measures. One key point about OpenDOAR is that this information is of use not only to users wishing to find original research papers but also for third-party service providers, like search engines or alert services, who need easy to use tools for developing tailored search services to suit specific user communities."
  • Registry of Open Access Repositories
    Currently indexing over 2300 repositories, "the aim of ROAR is to promote the development of open access by providing timely information about the growth and status of repositories throughout the world. Open access to research maximises research access and thereby also research impact, making research more productive and effective."
  • WorldWideScience
    A global science search engine designed specifically to help speed up scientific discovery and progress by accelerating the sharing of scientific knowledge. Using Microsoft's Translator, the sites multilingual search engine offers the ability to search across databases in nine languages and retrieve translated results in the language of their choice.
Archaeology-Related Open Access Data & Reports
  • Abzu
    Abzu is a guide to networked open access data relevant to the study and public presentation of the Ancient Near East and the Ancient Mediterranean world.
  • Archaeobotanical Database
    The geographic area covered by the represented in the archaeobotanical data in ADEMNES, includes Greece, Turkey, Western Iran, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, and Northern Egypt. The chronological frame comprises the Epipalaeolithic up to the Medieval periods, with a special focus on the Bronze and Iron Ages. Currently archaeobotanical data from 533 archaeological sites in the focus area have been collected from publications and contributed by individual researchers The data is available for archaeobotanists, archaeologists and other interested groups. Site or taxa related queries can be conducted."
  • Archaeological Data Service
    The Archaeology Data Service supports research, learning and teaching with freely available, high quality and dependable digital resources. It does this by preserving digital data in the long term, and by promoting and disseminating a broad range of data in archaeology. The ADS promotes good practice in the use of digital data in archaeology, it provides technical advice to the research community, and supports the deployment of digital technologies. Hosted by the University of York, England.
  • ArchSearch - the ADS Online Catalogue
    "The Archaeology Data Service (ADS) supports research, learning and teaching with high quality and dependable digital resources. It does this by preserving digital data in the long term, and by promoting and disseminating a broad range of data in archaeology. The ADS promotes good practice in the use of digital data in archaeology, it provides technical advice to the research community, and supports the deployment of digital technologies. The ADS hosts AHDS Archaeology."
  • Chaco Research Archive
    The Chaco Research Archive is an online resource providing access to a wealth of information documenting the history of archaeological research in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. The archive includes material from dozens of sites excavated in the Chaco Culture National Historical Park and beyond.
  • DANS: Data Archiving and Neworked Service
    "DANS promotes sustained access to digital research data. For this purpose, DANS encourages researchers to archive and reuse data in a sustained manner, e.g. through the online archiving system EASY. DANS also provides access, via NARCIS.nl, to thousands of scientific datasets, e-publications and other research information in the Netherlands. In addition, the institute provides training and advice, and performs research into sustained access to digital information. Driven by data, DANS ensures that access to digital research data keeps improving, through its services and by taking part in national & international projects and networks. DANS is an institute of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW) and the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO)."
  • the Digital Archaeological Record (tDAR)
    "tDAR is an international digital archive and repository that houses data about archaeological investigations, research, resources, and scholarship. tDAR provides researchers new avenues to discover and integrate information relevant to topics they are studying. Users can search tDAR for digital documents, data sets, images, GIS files, and other data resources from archaeological projects spanning the globe. For data sets, users also can use data integration tools in tDAR to simplify and illuminate comparative research."
  • Evidence for Nature and People Data Portal
    "This portal features data from a systematic map on the impacts of conservation on human well-being in non-OECD nations (Bottrill et al. 2014, McKinnon et al. 2015, 2016) drawn from 1,042 peer-reviewed and grey literature. Here, you can access the knowledge management tool and various analytic dashboards for slicing the data. As we progress in our different initiatives (see RESEARCH section), we will update this dashboard with beta versions of support tools and other analytics."
  • FastiOnline (FOLD&R - Fasti On Line Documents & Research)
    "Between 1946 and 1987 the International Association for Classical Archaeology (AIAC) published the Fasti Archaeologici. It contained very useful summary notices of excavations throughout the area of the Roman Empire. However, spiraling costs and publication delays combined to render it less and less useful. AIACs board of directors thus decided in 1998 to discontinue the publication and to seek a new way of recording and diffusing new results. The Fasti Online is the result of this effort."
  • Giza Archives
    "Surrounding the Giza Pyramids are thousands of ancient tombs, temples, settlements, and artifacts. Archaeological discoveries continue to this day. This website is a comprehensive resource for research on Giza. It contains photographs and other documentation from the original Harvard University - Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition (1904 to 1947), from recent MFA fieldwork, and from other expeditions, museums, and universities around the world."
  • Hominin.net
    "Hominin.net is a database of hominin fossils, all the metadata related to each specimen, and bibliographic information such as authors and references. The database is open access" and researchers are encouraged to contribute to the effort.
  • National Archeological Database
    "The National Archeological Database, Reports module, is an expanded bibliographic inventory of over 350,000 reports on archeological investigation and planning, mostly of limited circulation. This "gray literature" NADB-Maps NADB Permits represents a large portion of the primary information available on archeological sites in the U.S."
  • NESPOS - Pleistocene People & Places
    NESPOS is "an open source information platform about Pleistocene humans, providing detailed information about important sites, their analytical results, archaeological findings and a selection of literary quotes. Moreover it is a repository where archaeologists and paleoanthropologists can exchange their research results and ideas by a protected Wiki-based collaboration platform with a continuously growing sample of 3D scanned human fossils and artefacts."
  • Open Context
    "Open Context is a free, open access resource for the electronic publication of primary field research from archaeology and related disciplines. It emerged as a means for scholars and students to easily find and reuse content created by others, which are key to advancing research and education. Open Context's technologies focus on ease of use, open licensing frameworks, informal data integration and, most importantly, data portability. Currently, we are building up an extensive and diverse body of content and exploring different ways of visualizing and remixing it."
  • Paleobiology Database
    "The Paleobiology Database seeks to provide researchers and the public with information about the entire fossil record. You can use the site to find out about fossil collections, individual plants and animals, taxonomic groups, references to publications, stratigraphic units, time scales, and time intervals. All of our data can be downloaded, including collection, occurrence, or specimen records, taxonomic names and opinions, measurements of specimens, and Neptune occurrences. Tools on the site also let you generate paleomaps, data summary tables, lists of common taxa, first appearances, diversity curves, ecological statistics, time scale confidence intervals, stratigraphic confidence intervals."
  • Propylaeum-DOK - Digital Repository Classical Studies
    " Propylaeum-DOK - Digital Repository Classical Studies is the full-text server of the Virtual Library of Classical Studies and is made available by the University Library of Heidelberg. It offers members of the academic community worldwide the opportunity to publish their texts in electronic format on the internet at no charge. All kinds of publications (like monographs, articles, lectures) in the fields of Classical Studies can be stored on "Propylaeum-DOK". The standard of these publications should not fall below that of traditional printed ones. The documents will be stored and their long-term availability guaranteed by using standardized addresses (URN) and metadata (OAIPMH). They are accessible through the German union catalogues and search engines, too."
Anthropology Repositories
  • AMNH DSpace Digital Repository (American Museum of Natural History)
    "The AMNH DSpace Digital Repository is a digital archive maintained by the Research Library for AMNH Scientific Publications and materials digitized by the Library." You can browse the two collections: Research Library and Scientific Publications - or you can search by keyword or other options. Contents include: "The Anthropological Papers, published continuously since 1907, are monographic volumes that include some of the great ethnographies of the 20th century, particularly on North American Indians; The Bulletin, published continuously since 1881, consists of longer monographic volumes in the field of natural sciences relating to zoology, paleontology, and geology; and Memoirs, published at irregular intervals, but often out of chronological sequence, from 1893 until 1930, were monographic works focusing on scientific topics requiring exhaustive treatment."
  • AnthroBase.com
    "AnthroBase is a multilingual, searchable database of articles, theses, essays, reports, conference papers, field-notes etc., written by anthropologists and others with an interest in social and cultural diversity. Authors retain copyright to their texts and may withdraw their texts from the database at any time. AnthroBase accepts texts that are concerned with documenting and understanding social and cultural diversity. Anthropological texts form the core of the collection, but we invite contributions from philosophers, historians, pedagogues, political scientists, psychologists, linguists, economists, journalists and others with appropriate interests. Texts on AnthroBase are indexed according to theme, citation, region, author and title, and indexed categories of texts are saved on separate category pages that may be bookmarked and saved by any user."
  • Archival Sound Recordings (British Library)
    This service is primarily for British institutions, but others can use the database and access a good deal of the recordings, which include "46,600 selected recordings of music, spoken word, and human and natural environments" which include dialects, nature, world music, and oral history.
  • Data Archiving and Networked Services (DANS)
    DANS's activities are centred around 3 core services: data archiving, data reusing and training & consultancy. Sharing and reusing research data promotes science. Datasets collected for a certain research purpose can also contain answers to research questions from very different research in the same or in another research discipline. This is certainly the case for historical data. Furthermore, new insights are gained by combining datasets, which is impossible if the data are not sufficiently described and available. The availability of research data finally facilitates the reproduction of research, which is an important condition for science."
  • Dryad
    Dryad is an international repository of data underlying peer-reviewed articles in the basic and applied biosciences. Dryad enables scientists to validate published findings, explore new analysis methodologies, repurpose data for research questions unanticipated by the original authors, and perform synthetic studies.
  • GEON
    A 2007 NSF workshop foresaw the need for "a future in which someone can sit at a terminal and have easy access to vast stores of data of almost any kind, with the easy ability to visualize, analyze and model those data. GEON is developing a geoinformatics system as a step towards realizing this vision. Integrating a variety of multi-dimensional data in response to such a request requires a common framework. GEON is developing the OpenEarth Framework (OEF) to facilitate such integration.

    The topmost layers of the OEF consist of digital elevation models (DEMs), which can be obtained from a variety of topographic data. Given the proliferation of such topographic data and the need for easily serving these data, we are also launching a new initiative called the Opentopography Portal (or, OpenToPo for short)."

  • Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF)
    This data portal of the GBIF provides international biodiversity data. Content includes species data sets; species occurrence records and information; and information on the data publishers, datasets, and data networks that share through GBIF.
  • Cogprints
    "Welcome to CogPrints, an electronic archive for self-archive papers in any area of Psychology, Neuroscience, and Linguistics, and many areas of Computer Science (e.g., artificial intelligence, robotics, vison, learning, speech, neural networks), Philosophy (e.g., mind, language, knowledge, science, logic), Biology (e.g., ethology, behavioral ecology, sociobiology, behaviour genetics, evolutionary theory), Medicine (e.g., Psychiatry, Neurology, human genetics, Imaging), Anthropology (e.g., primatology, cognitive ethnology, archeology, paleontology), as well as any other portions of the physical, social and mathematical sciences that are pertinent to the study of cognition."
  • ePrints Soton
    University of Southampton Institutional Research Repository ePrints Soton contains an impressive and growing collection of materials in the arts, humanities and social sciences. The collection of open access materials is searchable or browsable by discipline area.
  • ERIC (Access via U.S. Dept. of Ed.)
    This version of the ERIC (Education Resources Information Center) database is freely available on the web and provides access to education-related journal and non-journal literature. Sponsored by the US Department of Education, it provides full citations and abstracts and some full-text for journal articles, books, curricula, government documents, dissertations, reports, and other educational materials.
  • Forced Migration Online
    "Forced Migration Online (FMO) provides instant access to a wide variety of online resources dealing with the situation of forced migrants worldwide. Designed for use by practitioners, policy makers, researchers, students or anyone interested in the field, FMO aims to give comprehensive information in an impartial environment and to promote increased awareness of human displacement issues to an international community of users."
  • HTP Prints: History & Theory of Psychology Eprint Archive
    From York University (Canada), this growing collection is searchable or browsable. HTP is "a free service to the community of scholarly historians and theoreticians of psychology with the goal of promoting the rapid dissemination of new work in the field"
  • Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR) Authentication Required
    Located within the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan, ICPSR (Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research) provides access to the world's largest archive of computerized social science data, both publicly and privately collected and published. This includes data sets for countries world wide that cover demographics and census, opinion polls, urban studies, education, economics, geography, legal systems, governments and elections, political behavior and attitudes, health care and other social indicators.

    Off-campus access is available, but users must first create a free account on campus at Create a New Account in order to download data.

    This resource is paid for the Dept. of Political Science.

  • IssueLab
    "IssueLab's mission is to more effectively archive, distribute, and promote the extensive and diverse body of research being produced by the nonprofit sector."
  • Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity
    The Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity (KNB) is a national network intended to facilitate ecological and environmental research on biocomplexity. For scientists, the KNB is an efficient way to discover, access, interpret, integrate and analyze complex ecological data from a highly-distributed set of field stations, laboratories, research sites, and individual researchers.
  • LingBuzz
    " LingBuzz is an openly accessible repository of scholarly papers, discussions and other documents for "generative" linguistics. On top of its own papers, it also aggregates papers from the semantics archive, the OT archive, etc. making them all available and searchable in one place. The ultimate goal of lingBuzz is however larger than an archive of papers: It aims at gradually becoming both a community center for generative linguistics and an experiment in semi-automated article ranking."
  • Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network
    The Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network is a collaborative effort involving more than 1800 scientists and students investigating ecological processes over long temporal and broad spatial scales. Currently, the LTER Data Portal contains entries for over 6000 ecological datasets from 26 LTER Network research sites, and thousands of additional datasets from numerous other ecological field stations and research institutions.
  • Mana'o
    A small, but growing, searchable collection of open access materials. "In Hawaiian mana'o means thoughts, ideas, knowledge, or opinions -- when making decisions together people often ask for each other's mana'o. The Mana'o collection is a project of the Department of Anthropology at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa which seeks to realize this ideal by combining anthropology's concern with openness and diversity with the scholarly ideal of open access. The collection has three focuses. First, it seeks to collect pieces about the Asia-Pacific region written by anthropologists and other people working in related disciplines. By making this research open to all, anthropological work on the Asia-Pacific region in order to make it available anyone interested in the area -- including especially people from the region. Second, by actively soliciting material from anthropologists, the collection seeks to educate our discipline about the ideals of open access and our ethical responsibility to make our work available to the communities that have hosted us. Finally, the repository hosts special collections relating to research interests of faculty members at UH Manoa."
  • Media Anthropology Network
    From the European Association of Social Anthropologists (EASA), thus site "aims to foster international discussion and collaboration around the anthropology of media. The network also hopes to contribute to the theoretical and empirical development of this anthropological subfield." the page provides open access to working papers, syllabi, bibliographies, conference papers and other materials. Good links, FAQs and other information.
  • Open Anthropology Cooperative Press
    "The OAC Press launches the Working Papers Series to promote intellectual exchange within and outside the universities. We hope to bring what anthropologists have to say to the attention of the general public and invite everyone to take part in our debates. Each paper published will be linked to an open discussion thread in the OAC network. We will select work in progress that offers readers timely and relevant ideas and authors feedback for revision. The papers will be presented here in various formats and at several stages of their evolution. We place no restriction on publication elsewhere. The point is to refresh an ongoing conversation about anthropology and the world we live in."
  • Open Folklore
    An important, growing, searchable collection. "Open Folklore will become a multi-faceted resource, combining digitization and digital preservation of data, publications, educational materials, and scholarship in folklore; promoting open access to these materials; and providing an online search tool to enhance discoverability of relevant, reliable resources for folklore studies."
  • Open Grey: System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe
    With over 690,000 documents, "System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe, is your open access to 700.000 bibliographical references of grey literature (paper) produced in Europe and allows you to export records and locate the documents. Examples of grey (gray) literature include technical or research reports, doctoral dissertations, some conference papers, some official publications, and other types of grey literature. OpenGrey covers Science, Technology, Biomedical Science, Economics, Social Science and Humanities."
  • PolicyArchive
    "PolicyArchive is an innovative, new digital archive of global, non-partisan public policy research. It makes use of the power, efficiency, and economy of modern Internet technology to collect and disseminate summaries and full texts, videos, reports, briefs, and multimedia material of think tank, university, government, and foundation-funded policy research. It offers a subject index, an internal search engine, useful abstracts, email notifications of newly added research, and will soon expand to offer information on researchers and funders, and even user-generated publication reviews. Over time, it will grow to include policy content from international and corporate organizations."
  • PsyDok
    In both German and English, "PsyDok is the Open Access Repository for Psychology: Both publishing and using documents published here is free of charge. It is maintained by Saarland University and State Library (Germany)." The site, launched in 2003, is searchable or you can browse by topic. Items are generally available as HTML or PDF.
  • Public Library of Science (PLoS) (OA) Authentication Required
    PLoS publishes peer-reviewed, open access scientific and medical journals. They include original research as well as timely feature articles. All PLoS articles are immediately freely accessible online, are deposited in the free public archive PubMed Central, and can be redistributed and reused according to the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
  • PubMed Central
    "PMC is a free full-text archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health's National Library of Medicine (NIH/NLM)."
  • Qualitative Data Repository (QDR)
    "The Qualitative Data Repository (QDR) is a dedicated archive for storing and sharing digital data (and accompanying documentation) generated or collected through qualitative and multi-method research in the social sciences. QDR provides search tools to facilitate the discovery of data, and also serves as a portal to material beyond its own holdings, with links to U.S. and international archives. The repository’s initial emphasis is on political science."
  • ReliefWeb
    "ReliefWeb is your source for timely, reliable and relevant humanitarian information and analysis. Our goal is to help you make sense of humanitarian crises worldwide. To do this, we scan the websites of international and non-governmental organizations, governments, research institutions and the media for news, reports, press releases, appeals, policy documents, analysis and maps related to humanitarian emergencies worldwide."
  • SAHARA (Society of Architectural Historians)
    Access is not completely free; however you can register for limited use. "SAHARA is a digital image archive developed over the past three years by the Society of Architectural Historians in collaboration with ARTstor. Funded by a grant from The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, SAHARA allows SAH members either to upload their own digital photographs and QTVR panoramas to a shared online archive or to download images from the archive for teaching and research. The SAHARA collection has been developed for all who study, interpret, photograph, design and preserve the built environment worldwide. SAHARA now has nearly 30,000 images that were contributed by architects, scholars, photographers, graduate students, preservationists and others who share an interest in the built world."
  • Social Science Open Access Repository
    Currently with over 17,000 records, "SSOAR's goal is to implement the "green road" to open access by providing users with free electronic access to journal article preprints and postprints -- our main focus -- and also to other document types. SSOAR is especially committed to the archiving and dissemination of quality-controlled texts. The repository has been certified by DINI, the German Initiative for Networked Information (DINI certificate 2007). The DINI certificate confirms our compliance with formal and technical standards and quality criteria for open-access repositories."
  • Social Science Research Network Authentication Required
    Social Science Research Network (SSRN) is devoted to the rapid worldwide dissemination of social science research and is composed of a number of specialized research networks in each of the social sciences. The SSRN eLibrary consists of two parts: an Abstract Database containing abstracts on over 197,700 scholarly working papers and forthcoming papers and an Electronic Paper Collection currently containing over 159,700 downloadable full text documents in Adobe Acrobat pdf format.


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