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WRIT 1301: College in the Schools Ethnography Assignment




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Examples of Ethnographic Studies and How to Find More
  • Articles from Library Article Indexes available in Full Text
    To access the text, click on the title of the article. This brings up a U of M libraries "find it" menu that provides links to the full-text options available for the selected citation. Use the year, pages and title to find the full text.
    • Contradictory Literacy Practices of Mexican-Background Students: An Ethnography From the Rural Midwest
      http://tc.liblink.umn.edu/sfx_local?url_ver=Z39.88-2004&url_ctx_fmt=infofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Actx&ctx_enc=info%3Aofi%2Fenc%3AUTF-8&ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fsfxit.com%3Aazlist&sfx.ignore_date_threshold=1&rft.object_id=110975955581284&issn=1523-5882
      Godina, Heriberto. Bilingual Research Journal v. 28 no. 2 (Summer 2004) p. 153-80
      Abstract: This ethnographic study explores the contradictory literacy practices of 10 high school students of Mexican background from the rural Midwest. Literacy is investigated through English and Spanish in a sociocultural context. Findings reveal how Mexican-background students demonstrate different literacy practices in their homes and communities than those acknowledged at school. Educators in the school setting did not recognize Mexican-background students' linguistic proficiency. In school, Mexican-background students were viewed in terms of their limited-English status and were mostly enrolled in low academic tracks. At home, Spanish-speaking parents relied on their children's sophisticated translation abilities. Results indicate that the lost opportunities for effective literacy learning at school ignored the realistic responsibilities and potential of the Mexican-background students.
    • Lifestyles of Adolescents With Visual Impairments: An Ethnographic Analysis
      http://tc.liblink.umn.edu/sfx_local?ctx_enc=info%3Aofi%2Fenc%3AUTF-8&ctx_id=10_1&ctx_tim=2008-8-1T15%3A12%3A33CDT&ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fsfxit.com%3Acitation&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Journal+of+visual+impairment+%26+blindness&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Aarticle&sfx.title_search=begins&url_ctx_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Actx&url_ver=Z39.88-2004
      Sacks, Sharon and Wolffe, Karen E. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness v. 92 (January 1998) p. 7-17
      Abstract: The first study of the Social Network Pilot Project provided quantitative data on the lifestyles of 32 adolescents with visual impairments and 16 who were sighted. This article reports on the second study, an in-depth ethnographic analysis of 3 of the visually impaired adolescents from the first study.
    • The Lost Voice of the Adolescent Male
      http://tc.liblink.umn.edu/sfx_local?ctx_enc=info%3Aofi%2Fenc%3AUTF-8&ctx_id=10_1&ctx_tim=2008-8-1T15%3A9%3A8CDT&ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fsfxit.com%3Acitation&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Journal+of+instructional+psychology&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Aarticle&sfx.title_search=begins&url_ctx_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Actx&url_ver=Z39.88-2004
      Anderson, Kimberly P.; Evans, Cay; Mangin, Martha. Journal of Instructional Psychology v. 24 (March 1997) p. 14-23
      Abstract: This study investigated the perspective of the adolescent at-risk male through ethnographical methodologies. The researchers began with observing the adolescent at-risk males in a support group. From the observations, a pattern was recognized. The researchers employed a questionnaire to acquire a better perspective. The data were analyzed using data triangulation. The investigation identified ten common themes of at-risk adolescent male behavior: school, students, family, friends, discipline, attitudes, behaviors, self-esteem, sex, and race.
    • Moral Development in Fraternity Members: A Case Study
      http://tc.liblink.umn.edu/sfx_local?url_ver=Z39.88-2004&url_ctx_fmt=infofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Actx&ctx_enc=info%3Aofi%2Fenc%3AUTF-8&ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fsfxit.com%3Aazlist&sfx.ignore_date_threshold=1&rft.object_id=960238517124
      Mathiasen, Robert E. College Student Journal v. 39 no. 2 (June 2005) p. 242-52
      Abstract: Research on the effects of Greek life on college student moral development has generally concluded that membership in these organizations does little to enhance moral development. However, this qualitative case study of one fraternity found otherwise. A fraternity at a large Midwestern university was studied. The fraternity (given the pseudonym "Alpha Alpha") was chosen based upon information gathered from student affairs personnel at the university. Multiple sources of information were used in this study (documents, interviews, observations). The data collected provided support for Alpha Alpha's reputation as a positive influence on members' moral development. Four major themes emerged from the data collected: (1) recruiting quality students, (2) upholding house tradition and reputation, (3) emphasizing moral development, and (4) encouraging community service.
    • The Politics of Culture and the Struggle to Get an Education
      http://tc.liblink.umn.edu/sfx_local?ctx_enc=info%3Aofi%2Fenc%3AUTF-8&ctx_id=10_1&ctx_tim=2008-8-1T15%3A14%3A11CDT&ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fsfxit.com%3Acitation&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Adult+education+quarterly&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Aarticle&sfx.title_search=begins&url_ctx_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Actx&url_ver=Z39.88-2004
      Sparks, Barbara. Adult Education Quarterly v. 48 no. 4 (Summer 1998) p. 245-59
      Abstract: Many adults who attempt to read their basic educational goals through the formal adult education system fail to find programs that meet their needs. Based on in-depth interviews with Chicano/as in the Southwest, this report examines the impact of and the extent to which historical and contemporary structural constraints impede their efforts. It concludes that adult education practice at all levels must be restructured to become more inclusive and supportive of nondominant groups that look to adult education for assistance in reaching their academic goals.
  • Indexes and Databases for Finding More Ethnographies
    The following article indexes are useful for finding ethnographic studies.
    Tip: Some keywords that are useful for finding these are "ethnographic study", "ethnology or ethnography"
    • Academic Search Premier
      http://www.lib.umn.edu/get/3316
      The world's largest academic multi-disciplinary database, Academic Search Premier provides full text for thousands of scholarly (peer-reviewed) publications.
    • Sociological Abstracts
      http://www.lib.umn.edu/get/3068
      This core database for the field of sociology contains information on sociology and social policy worldwide. Sociological Abstracts includes citations from the 1952-present.
    • AnthroSource
      http://www.lib.umn.edu/get/14986
      Current and archival journals from the American Anthropological Association (AAA). Current coverage includes 15 of the AAA's most critical peer-reviewed publications; including American Anthropologist, American Ethnologist, Anthropology and Education Quarterly, and Medical Anthropology Quarterly. The archive includes all AAA journals.
    • Anthropology Plus
      http://www.lib.umn.edu/get/3168
      The index offers excellent coverage of all core journals in the field in addition to local and lesser-known journals. Coverage is from the late 19th century to the present.
Definitions of Key Terms in Ethnography
  • Online Resources
    • What is Ethnography?
      http://www.sas.upenn.edu/anthro/anthro/whatisethnography
      Guide on ethnography from the Public Interest Anthropology department at U Penn. Sections from this guide on conducting an interview and taking field notes are also linked below.
  • Books Available in Wilson Library
    • Designing and Conducting Ethnographic Research
      LeCompte, Margaret Diane. Walnut Creek, Calif. : AltaMira Press, 1999.
      Location: Wilson Library GN345 .S35 1999 Regular Loan
    • Encyclopedia of Anthropology
      Includes entries on Ethnology; Ethnographic Writing; Fieldwork, Ethnographic; and Participant Observation.
      Location: Wilson Reference GN11.E63 2006
Observing a Group
  • Articles
    To access the text, click on the title of the article. This brings up a U of M libraries "find it" menu that provides links to the full-text options available for the selected citation. Use the year, pages and title to find the full text.
    • Potential Sources of Observer Bias in Police Observational Data
      http://tc.liblink.umn.edu/sfx_local?sid=CSA:socioabs-set-c&pid=%3CAN%3E200609458%3C%2FAN%3E%26%3CPY%3E2005%3C%2FPY%3E%26%3CAU%3ESpano%2C%20Richard%3C%2FAU%3E&issn=0049-089X&volume=34&issue=3&spage=591
      Spano, Richard. Social Science Research , 2005, 34, 3, Sept, 591-617
      Abstract: Much of our knowledge about police behavior "on the street" is based on in-person observation of the police. However, little research has examined how the observers can potentially bias observational data. In this paper, anecdotal accounts from a variety of field settings are categorized into four potential sources of observer bias. Secondary analyses of data from a large-scale observational study of police are used to assess the impact of three out of the four type of observer bias (reactivity, going native, & burnout). There is evidence of reactivity for arrest, but not use of force behavior & little support for going native & burnout. More generally, observer bias is categorized as: (1) threats to the validity of observational data collected at different stages of fieldwork; & (2) the potential for human error implicit in observational data. The incorporation of a semi-structured field diary is suggested to more systematically document all four types of observer bias in future research.
  • Books Available in Wilson Library
    Useful subject headings to search for books on this topic in MNCAT or other catalogs: "Ethnology -- Field work"
    • The cultural experience : ethnography in complex society
      Spradley, James P. Prospect Heights, Ill. : Waveland Press, 1988.
      Location: Wilson Library GN346 .S67 1988 Regular Loan
Conducting an Interview
  • Online Resources
    • Methods -- Interviews
      http://www.sas.upenn.edu/anthro/anthro/interviews
      Guide on conducting an interview from the Public Interest Anthropology department at U Penn.
  • Books Available in Wilson Library
    Useful subject headings to search for books on this topic in MNCAT or other catalogs: "Interviewing in ethnology" and "Interviewing in journalism"
    • The interviewer's handbook : a guerrilla guide : techniques & tactics for reporters & writers
      LinkBrady, John Joseph. New York: Writer Books, 2004.
      Location: Wilson Library PN4784.I6 B68 2004 Regular Loan
Taking and Using Field Notes
  • Online Resources
    • Methods -- Fieldnotes
      http://www.sas.upenn.edu/anthro/anthro/fieldnotes
      Guide on taking field notes from the Public Interest Anthropology department at U Penn
  • Books Available in Wilson Library
    Useful subject headings to search for books on this topic in MNCAT or other catalogs: "Ethnology -- Field work" and "Ethnology -- Methodology".
    • FieldWorking: Reading and Writing Research
      Chiseri-Strater, Elizabeth and Bonnie Stone Sunstein. Blair Press: Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1997.
      Location: Wilson Library GN346 .S89 2002
    • Writing Ethnographic Fieldnotes
      Emerson, Robert M., Rachel I. Fretz, and Linda L. Shaw. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.
      Location: Wilson Library GN307.7 .E44 1995
The Ethics of Ethnography
  • Online Resources
  • Articles
    To access the text, click on the title of the article. This brings up a U of M libraries "find it" menu that provides links to the full-text options available for the selected citation. Use the year, pages and title to find the full text.
    • One Hundred Dollars and a Dead Man: Ethical Decision Making in Ethnographic Fieldwork
      http://tc.liblink.umn.edu/sfx_local?ctx_enc=info%3Aofi%2Fenc%3AUTF-8&ctx_id=10_1&ctx_tim=2008-8-1T15%3A25%3A14CDT&ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fsfxit.com%3Acitation&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Journal+of+Contemporary+Ethnography&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Aarticle&sfx.title_search=begins&url_ctx_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Actx&url_ver=Z39.88-2004
      Vanderstaay, Steven L. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography , 2005, 34, 4, Aug, 371-409 Abstract: This article provides a narrative of the author's research on Clay, a teenage cocaine dealer, the author's efforts to help Clay's family, & of events that culminate in Clay's murder of his mother's friend. Following the narrative, the author reflects on the relationship of this case study to questions & concerns raised in previous discussions of ethical decision making during fieldwork. These include the extent of responsibility researchers have for the safety & well-being of research subjects, the emotional costs of researching drug users & sellers, & fear of exploiting research subjects. The author concludes that, while no recipe for ethical fieldwork can be written, a review of dilemmas faced by previous ethnographers can enable researchers to anticipate difficulties & to establish useful guidelines before entering the field.
  • Books Available in Wilson Library
    • Critical Ethnography : Method, Ethics, and Performance
      Soyini, Madison, D. Thousand Oaks, Calif. : Sage, 2005.
      Location: Wilson Library GN345 .M324 2005 Regular Loan
    • Essential Ethnographic Methods: Observations, Interviews and Questionnaires
      Schensul, Stephen L. Walnut Creek, Calif. : AltaMira Press, 1999.
      Location: Wilson Library GN345 .S362 1999 Regular Loan


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