Unethical, “predatory” publishers seek to exploit authors and their research. Questionable journals may be either open access or toll access and are difficult to track through name or website changes. Some “fake conferences” purport to be scholarly meetings but don’t deliver.
The best defense is for authors to be critical of "too good to be true" publication offers:
- See tips for Assessing publishers and conferences
- Check out Think, Check, Submit's video on choosing the right journal for your research: