Unethical, “predatory” publishers seek to exploit authors and their research. Questionable journals may be either open access or toll access and are difficult to track through name or website changes. Some “fake conferences” purport to be scholarly meetings but don’t deliver.

The best defense is for authors to be critical of "too good to be true" publication offers:

Think. Check. Submit.

 

Questions or comments about open access issues at the University of Minnesota, and in general, can be directed to openaccess@umn.edu.