Evangelos P. Papanoutsos
''It is man's world of the mind that I endeavor to investigate, his Art, his Ethics, his Science that I seek to analyse and to understand." With this statement, Evangelos P. Papanoutsos, a leading modern Greek thinker, summarized his intellectual pilgrimage which began with a desire to study "Metaphysics" and ended by studying what amounted to a kind of "Anthropology," a transition dictated perhaps as much by historical circumstances as by personal inclination. Frequently young nation-states such as modern Greece view their men of letters as enlighteners or commentators on political, social and cultural questions, as educators and reformers, as well as preservers and transmitters of the cultural heritage. The intellectual and cultural history of modern Greece attests to the central role its men of letters have played and continue to play in various manifestations of the national experience. Whether residing within the boundaries of the modern Greek state or in the diaspora, most Greek intellectuals inevitably attempt to define or redefine the status, dilemmas and prospects of neohellenism in its national and international context. They do so with varying degrees of dedication and success, but the general impact of their efforts and the tradition they create underscores the basic premise from which they presumably operate: an unexamined life, individual or national, is not worth living. In short, consciously or unconsciously, they become critics, conservative or progressive.
The life and work of Evangelos P. Papanoutsos is an intricate part of twentieth-century Greek history and culture. Himself as old as the century (he was born in 1900 in Pireas), Papanoutsos has been a careful student and observer of the modern Greek scene, enriching it with his varied activities. He has expressed his concerns and hopes in over forty major works, philosophical and educational treatises, and scores of critical articles in newspapers and scholarly journals in Greece and abroad. Gradually, he emerged as one of the country's leading philosophers, educators and cultural critics. Well versed in the classics and always appreciative of the classical heritage, he nevertheless remained obsessively fascinated by the challenges facing modern man and the latter's responses to them. This fascination left its indelible mark on the life and work of E. P. Papanoutsos.
After graduation from the Gymnasium in Pireas, Papanoutsos studied theology and philosophy at the University of Athens (1915-1919), and like other ambitious Greek students of his generation who wished to excel in philosophical studies, he left for Europe at the first opportunity. He studied philosophy and education at the Universities of Berlin, Tübingen and Paris (1924-26), where among other things he familiarized himself with the contemporary philosophical currents in Europe and America. He received his Doctor of Philosophy degree from the University of Tübingen in 1927 with a dissertation on The Religious Experience in Plato. Written and defended in German, the dissertation was published in Alexandria, Egypt, where Papanoutsos had moved soon after his graduation from the University of Athens in 1919.
The Egyptian sojourn, which with the exception of the few years when he studied in Europe, lasted until 1931, and was probably the most crucial landmark in the intellectual and cultural growth of Papanoutsos. Infinitely more cosmopolitan than Athens, Alexandria then claimed a thriving Greek community with its own schools, newspapers, publishing industry and literary circles. There Papanoutsos began his life-long involvement with Greek education as a teacher at the Averoff Greek Gymnasium, where he tried to introduce some of the new pedagogical techniques he had studied in Europe. There he began studying French, German and English, and there he became friends with a select group of men of letters of the Greek diaspora, including Constantine Cavafy and Glafkos Alithersis, whom Papanoutsos describes as his intellectual mentors in the early stages of his career. Finally, in Alexandria he published his first philosophical works. For the rest of his life, as philosopher, educator and critic, Papanoutsos labored to complete the edifice whose foundations, in a way, he laid in Alexandria.
Preoccupation with philosophical questions accounts for a major part of Papanoutsos' creative activity. At one time he identified this preoccupation as the major labor, purpose and joy of his life. It started in Alexandria in 1921 when as a young intellectual he wrote an extensive critical review (seventy six printed pages) of a book written by a local Greek physician entitled Responsibility and Freedom, a book which defended scientific positivism and a monistic materialism. As early as then Papanoutsos pointed out that man's "spiritual world"--the domains of beauty, goodness and truth--has its own structure and requires a special method for its proper investigation, understanding and appraisal. He pursued this philosophical approach systematically for the rest of his life. His first step in this venture was the publication in 1928 of The Trilogy of the Mind: Art, Ethics, Science, in which he outlined the main ideas and principles of his project. These ideas were further developed in respective volumes during the following decade: About Art (1930); About Ethics (1932); and About Science (1937). But it took another fifteen years (1938-1953) of hard and systematic work before the project resulted in the publication of the three huge volumes under the general title The World of the Mind: vol. I, Aesthetics (1948); vol. II, Ethics (1949); and vol. III, Gnosiology (1954); totaling 1,352 pages. The third volume was translated into English as The Foundations of Knowledge (1968). This was the first successful attempt by a modem Greek at a systematic philosophy in which the principal philosophical problems are rigorously examined, revealing simultaneously the author's mastery of European philosophy and his own originality. Despite its size, The World of the Mind enjoyed phenomenal commercial success, by Greek standards, each volume having gone through several editions. In the meantime, supplementary essays on the philosophy of art, written after the first edition of his Aesthetics, appeared in separate volumes: Philosophy and Paideia (1958), Philosophical Problems (1964), and Logos and Man (1971). It seemed as if the completion of The World of the Mind liberated its author who subsequently proceeded with alarming regularity to flood the Greek bookstores with volumes of philosophical content. In addition to the above, the most significant were La Catharsis des passions d'après Aristote (1953), Psychology (1970), Logic (1970), Practical Philosophy (1973), Law and Virtue (1974), The Right of Force (1976), State and Justice (1976), and The Crisis of Our Civilization (1978). Parallel with these activities, Papanoutsos translated into Greek, with analytical introductions and comments, Immanuel Kant's Essays (1971), and David Hume's Essays: Philosophy, Ethics, and Politics (1974), as well as Hume's Essays: Economics, History and Sociopolitics (1979). Papanoutsos had, of course, earlier engaged himself with Kant's and Hume's thought while working on his The World of the Mind, and especially in his Philosophy and Paideia where he dealt with the problem of the "Meaning of History," but he wanted to make these works more readily accessible to the Greek reading public. In fact, his translation of Hume was the first such undertaking in Greek. Finally, reference should be made to the two-volume edition of Modern Greek Philosophy (1953, 1956), which is a useful guide to the contributions of modem Greek thinkers from the seventeenth to the twentieth centuries. With this work Papanoutsos sought to encourage the study of this neglected aspect of the intellectual and cultural history of modem Greece.
Papanoutsos' success as a philosophical writer stems chiefly from his commitment to the field, his clarity of thought, and above all his clarity of expression. With the exception of his first philosophical essays, he deliberately wrote entirely in the demotic of which he became an ardent champion. He maintained that the demotic could and should express with precision and ease the most complicated philosophical ideas, and his own writings certainly verify that. In this respect one could claim that Papanoutsos vindicated the demotic language in the philosophical expression, just as Palamas had done earlier in the poetic expression. In any case, with a handful of his contemporaries, some of whom belonged to academic circles, Papanoutsos contributed significantly to the creation of what can be described as a "popular" philosophical climate in Greece. Commercial publishers assumed the responsibility to publish philosophical works which the public welcomed, and Papanoutsos was delighted with the realization that his generation had learned to write and to study philosophy and not only the history of philosophy.
If philosophy was Papanoutsos' great joy, education was his great yearning, his life's great concern. Papanoutsos' formal training and his own philosophical inquiries led him from the beginning to the related question of paideia or education in the broad sense of the word; that is to say, the process by which man develops his sense of judgment and perspective and which also serves as a link between thought and social action. As early as 1924, he published his Pragmatism or Humanism: Elaboration and Criticism of the Theories of a Great Current of Contemporary Philosophy, which concentrates primarily on pragmatism as this had been shaped by Peirce, Dewey, Schiller, and James. Papanoutsos maintained his interest in pragmatism throughout his life, and he became an advocate of educational reforms which would correspond with social and economic realities and the introduction of pedagogical methods which would facilitate and make learning meaningful. In short, he rebelled against scholasticism which characterized the entire Greek educational system and which failed to meet the nation's needs. Gradually, he became a follower of the ideas of the short-lived Educational Society, founded in 1911 by A. Delmouzos, which constituted the first real attempt at educational reforms in Greece.
As a philosopher, educator and responsible citizen, Papanoutsos could not envisage national progress without a progressive and imaginative educational system, and the latter was inconceivable without major educational reforms. Upon his return to Greece from Alexandria in 1931, he became increasingly involved in that country's most controversial debate and the politics of education, which were hopelessly and treacherously confused by association with political ideologies, ranging from the extreme right to the extreme left, with liberal educators such as Papanoutsos caught repeatedly in an uncomfortable squeeze. But his ideas as an educator were gaining ground and between 1931 and 1944 he became successively founder and/or director of teachers training schools and of pedagogical academies in various parts of Greece, such as Mytilini, Alexandroupoli, Yannina, Tripoli and Pireas. Intermittently, between 1944 and 1965 he served as General Director and General Secretary of the Ministry of Education, usually during the period when George Papandreou commanded political power. Few can match his dedication to and struggle for educational reforms. Undaunted by political opposition, including the Greek military regime (1967-1974), Papanoutsos persisted until he witnessed the enforcement of educational reforms, first in 1964 and then in 1976. It was partly his desire to act as a watchdog of the educational reforms process that he served as a member of the Greek Parliament (representing the Democratic Center) for the period 1974-1977.
Central to Papanoutsos' educational reform program was his determination to implement the demotic as the language of instruction. It was another expression of his loyalty to the language of the people and his conviction that the use of the Katharevousa in Greek schools had already done irreparable damage to the nation. Much to his satisfaction, the 1976 reform initiated the demotic as the language of instruction at all levels of education. But the road to 1976 was a hard one. Until then the ideal of educational reform had been sustained by Herculean efforts in other spheres of activity. It was necessary to educate the politicians and the educators, as well as the public, about "the crucial importance of the reforms. This Papanoutsos sought to accomplish through the publication of a monthly educational journal, Paideia (later Paideia kai Zoe), which he managed almost singlehandedly from 1946 to 1961. The publication of this journal alone could easily earn for Papanoutsos a major place in modem Greek letters. That was only the beginning. In 1946 he undertook the responsibility to write a weekly column for the leading Athenian newspaper, To Virna, a column which he wrote until 1967. A selection of these articles appeared in book form under the titles Ephemera (1950) and Timely and Untimely (1962). In 1965 on the morrow of the first victory of the reforms, he published his Struggles and Agonies for Paideia, a landmark in the educational history of Greece. This work was later supplemented by his Paideia, Our Great Problem, published in 1976, the year of the implementation of the Educational Reform. While promoting reforms, Papanoutsos organized and directed the Technical and Professional Schools of the Athenian Technological Institute (1958-1975), a program which reflected his commitment to technical education, and his conviction that the educational process should transform itself into social action.
For political and personal reasons, Papanoutsos never held a position at a Greek university. In the long run this proved to be a blessing for he was able to devote more time to his scholarly and creative work. But he loved teaching, that is to say, to share his ideas with students and friends, and to this day nothing gives him greater pleasure than when he is viewed as a teacher. With the help of friends who shared similar convictions, Papanoutsos embarked upon one of the most creative and successful educational experiments in modem Greece and possibly anywhere in the world. Soon after the Second World War, they founded the cultural society, Athenaion, which was a free university offering the public in the evening free lessons at the university level. Papanoutsos assumed responsibility for supervising the "curriculum offerings," and soon it became one of the most heavily attended educational programs in Greece. One of the remarkable characteristics of this venture was that its curriculum included courses in the humanities and the sciences, and that it became a forum for the ideas of younger as well as older Greek intellectuals.
An examination of the society's report on the first twenty years of its accomplishments (1946-1966) reveals the most impressive array of activities, courses, lectures and excursions providing excellent instruction in Greek history and culture. The list of participating professors reads like a Who's Who of the best teachers and most exciting intellectuals of the period. Many scholarly books which appeared during this time in Greece were first discussed, or the subject matter first taught, in the halls of the Athenaion. Papanoutsos himself gave a series of courses on philosophy, including one on modern Greek philosophy.
All these efforts culminated in the 1976 Educational Reform. And quite appropriately when soon thereafter Papanoutsos was asked to contribute the first volume to a series of modem Greek biographies, under the auspices of the National Bank Cultural Foundation of Greece, he chose as his subject A. Delmouzos, the initiator of "educational demoticism," who earlier had served as an inspiration for him.
As a cultural critic, Papanoutsos also displayed a lively interest in modern Greek literature. He knew personally most of the major Greek writers of his generation, such as Cavafy, Kazantzakis, Palamas, Prevelakis, and Sikelianos, and he contributed to the leading Greek literary journals. As in the case of his philosophical and educational concerns, the language consideration--the use of the demotic--was again central. He therefore felt a special admiration for and affinity with the champions of literary demoticism. In 1949, Papanoutsos published in book form three useful studies on three major Greek poets, Palamas, Cavafy, and Sikelianos, which had appeared earlier in literary journals. Like many other works of Papanoutsos it, too, went through several editions and received the endorsement of some leading critics, even though many others were scandalized by his study of Cavafy whom he called "didactic." In reality, it is a subtle appreciation of the Alexandrian poet from a philosophical thinker's perspective and a study which could serve well many Cavafy students. Papanoutsos was also interested in the history of modem Greek criticism. In collaboration with I. M. Panayotopoulos and Dion. Zakythinos, he prepared a special volume on the subject Modem Greek Criticism in the Basic Library series (1956). As is the case with the two volumes on modem Greek philosophy in the same series, the collaborators direct their attention to the history and state of the art of modem Greek criticism, especially the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. And needless to say, Papanoutsos' critical comments on several works of literature and art are also scattered throughout his numerous articles, many of which first appeared in his weekly column in To Virna. Finally, he displayed his critical acumen as supervisor and collaborator of two of the most ambitious publishing ventures in Greece: the publication of the 100-volumes of ancient writers with modem Greek translation (1948-1958); and the 48-volume Basic Library series (1950-1960), an essential tool for the students of neohellenism.
This year (July 27), Evangelos P. Papanoutsos celebrates his eightieth birthday. He has generously fulfilled his role as a man of letters in a young and maturing nation-state. He presently lives alone (his wife Julia, a self-taught painter, died in 1972) in his Athens apartment on Anagnostopoulou 10, where he enjoys a view of the Acropolis. There he receives scholars and friends, Greeks and non-Greeks, with whom he discusses eagerly topics ranging from the philosophy and politics of Greek education to international issues. For his numerous contributions to philosophy, education, and humanistic studies, the University of St. Andrews in Scotland conferred on him an honorary doctorate in 1965. In 1977 the Society of Modem Greek Writers elected him as Honorary President.
This Third Annual Celebration of Greek Letters at the University of Minnesota is a tribute to Evangelos Papanoutsos, the philosopher, the critic, and above all the teacher. In 1966 while on a special educational tour in the United States, Papanoutsos visited Minnesota briefly and recorded his impressions in his book America: A Chapter in the History of Man (1966). Since then he has maintained contact with colleagues and friends at the University of Minnesota, and has always been ready to render his assistance in the common venture for paideia.
As is the custom, this celebration is accompanied by an exhibit of Papanoutsos' published works, as well as many unpublished manuscripts, correspondence, and other documents reflecting the range of his activities, and supplemented by commentaries on the life and work of Papanoutsos written by Greek and non Greek scholars. We are especially pleased to display a copy of Mr. Papanoutsos' unpublished memoirs that he donated to the University of Minnesota Library, which is a valuable document not only on the life of its author but also on the intellectual and cultural history of modem Greece. The Papanoutsos collection will serve as the basis for developing the Modem Greek Collection in the fields of education and philosophy. In many respects this is the finest tribute one could pay to this prolific writer, cultural critic and bold educator. He summarized many of his struggles and agonies when he stated that his great objective was to teach his fellow Greeks that "the Christian may hold the Old Testament with one hand and Plato and Aristotle with the other without fear that his faith will be distorted and without hating his educators," a succinct description of the universal problem of conflict and reconciliation in the educational process. Finally, this celebration is in keeping with our efforts at Minnesota to improve systematically the Modern Greek Collection and course offerings in modern Greek history and culture. This, too, is a tribute to Evangelos P. Papanoutsos and his commitment to paideia and whose life and work was a personification of what the Greeks would call the joy of learning.Theofanis G. Stavrou
Professor of History
1921 THE QUESTION OF THE FREEDOM OF WILL
1924 THE PHILOSOPHY OF HENRI BERGSON. Lecture
1924 PRAGMATISM OR HUMANISM. ELABORATION AND CRITICISM OF THE THEORIES OF A GREAT CURRENT OF CONTEMPORARY PHILOSOPHY
1924 THE FREEDOM OF WILL (SECOND THOUGHTS)
1927 DAS RELIGIÖSE ERLEBEN BEl PLATON (Greek edition, 1971)
1927 INTRODUCTION TO THE PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION
1928 THE TRILOGY OF THE MIND: ART, ETHICS, SCIENCE
1930 ABOUT ART
1932 ABOUT ETHICS
1937 ABOUT SCIENCE
1939 PLATO'S PHAEDO. Ancient text. Introduction, translation, notes
1940 ELEMENTS OF PSYCHOLOGY
1948 THE WORLD OF THE MIND. Vol. I: AESTHETICS
1949 THE WORLD OF THE MIND. Vol. II: ETHICS
1949 PALAMAS-CAVAFY-SIKELIANOS. Three studies (new edition, 1955)
1953 LA CATHARSIS DES PASSIONS D'APRÉS ARISTOTE
1953 MODERN GREEK PHILOSOPHY. Vol. I (BASIC LIBRARY, Vol. 35)
1954 THE WORLD OF THE MIND. Vol. III: THE FOUNDATIONS OF KNOWLEDGE (English edition, 1968)
1956 MODERN GREEK PHILOSOPHY. Vol. II (BASIC LIBRARY, Vol. 36)
1956 MODERN GREEK CRITICISM. With I. M. Panayotopoulos and Dion. Zakythinos (BASIC LIBRARY, Vol. 42)
1958 PHILOSOPHY AND PAIDEIA
1962 TIMELY AND UNTIMELY
1962 ETHICAL CONSCIOUSNESS AND ITS PROBLEMS
1963 PHILOSOPHICAL PROBLEMS
1965 STRUGGLES AND AGONIES FOR PAIDEIA
1966 AMERICA: A CHAPTER IN THE HISTORY OF MAN
1971 LOGOS AND MAN
1971 IMMANUEL KANT. ESSAYS. Introduction, translation, comments
1973 PRACTICAL PHILOSOPHY. A: PHILOSOPHY OF LIFE. B: SMALL INCISIONS IN BIG QUESTIONS
1974 DAVID HUME. ESSAYS: Philosophy, Ethics, and Politics. Introduction, translation, comments
1974 LAW AND VIRTUE
1976 THE RIGHT OF FORCE (AND OTHER ESSAYS)
1976 PSYCHOLOGY (for the second class of Lyceum)
1976 STATE AND JUSTICE (AND OTHER DIALOGUES)
1976 PAIDEIA, OUR GREAT PROBLEM
1978 A. DELMOUZOS. HIS LIFE. SELECTIONS FROM HIS WORK
1978 THE CRISIS OF OUR CIVILIZATION
1979 THE PATHS OF LIFE
1979 DAVID HUME. ESSAYS: Economics, History, and Sociopolitics. Introduction, translation, comments
1921 TO ΠTPOBΛHMA THΣ EΛEYΘEPIAΣ THΣ BOYΛHΣEΩΣ
1924 H ΦIΛOΣOΦIA TOY HENRI BERGSON (Διάλεξη)
1924 0 ΠPAΓΜΑΤΙΣΜΟΣ Η ΟΥΜΑΝΙΣΜΟΣ ΑΝΑΠΤΥΞΙΣ ΚΑΙ ΚΡΙΤΙΚΗ ΤΩΝ ΘΕΩΡΙΩΝ ΕΝΟΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ ΡΕΥΜΑΤΟΣ ΤΗΣ ΣΥΓΧΡΟΝΟΥ ΦΙΛΟΣΟΦΙΑΣ
1924 Η ΕΛΕΥΘΕΡΙΑ ΤΗΣ ΒΟΥΛΗΣΕΩΣ (ΔΕΥΤΕΡΟΛΟΓΙΑ)
1927 ΤΟ ΘΡΗΣΚΕΥΤΙΚΟ ΒΙΩΜΑ ΣΤΟΝ ΠΛΑΤΩΝΑ
1927 ΕΙΣΑΓΩΓΗ ΕΙΣ ΤΗΝ ΦΙΛΟΣΟΦΙΑ ΤΗΣ ΘΡΗΣΚΕΙΑΣ
1928 Η ΤΡΙΛΟΓΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΠΝΕΥΜΑΤΟΣ. ΤΕΧΝΗ, ΗΘΙΚΗ, ΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΗ
1930 ΠΕΡΙ ΤΕΧΝΗΣ
1932 ΠΕΡΙ ΗΘΙΚΗΣ
1937 ΠΕΡΙ ΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΗΣ
1939 ΠΛΑΤΩΝΟΣ ΦΑΙΔΩΝ
1940 ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΑ ΨΥΧΟΛΟΓΙΑΣ
1948 Ο ΚΟΣΜΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΠΝΕΥΜΑΤΟΣ. Α'. ΑΙΣΘΗΤΙΚΗ
1949 Ο ΚΟΣΜΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΠΝΕΥΜΑΤΟΣ. Β'. ΗΘΙΚΗ
1949 ΠΑΛΑΜΑΣ-ΚΑΒΑΦΗΣ-ΣΙΚΕΛΙΑΝΟΣ. Τρία μελετήματα
1953 ΚΑΘΑΡΣΗ ΤΩΝ ΠΑΘΩΝ ΣΤΗΝ ΠΟΙΗΤΙΚΗ ΤΟΥ ΑΡΙΣΤΟΤΕΛΗ
1953 ΝΕΟΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΦΙΛΟΣΟΦΙΑ. Α'. (ΒΑΣΙΚΗ ΒΙΒΛΙΟΘΗΚΗ, ΤΟΜΟΣ 35)
1954 Ο ΚΟΣΜΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΠΝΕΥΜΑΤΟΣ. Γ'. ΓΝΩΣΙΟΛΟΓΙΑ
1956 ΝΕΟΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΦΙΛΟΣΟΦΙΑ. B'. (ΒΑΣΙΚΗ ΒΙΒΛΙΟΘΗΚΗ, ΤΟΜΟΣ 36)
1956 ΝΕΟΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΚΡΙΤΙΚΗ (Μαζι μέ Ι. Μ. Παναγιωτόπουλο και Διον. Ζακυθηνό ΒΑΣΙΚΗ ΒΙΒΛΙΟΘΗΚΗ, ΤΟΜΟΣ 42)
1958 ΦΙΛΟΣΟΦΙΑ ΚΑΙ ΠΑΙΔΕΙΑ
1962 ΕΠΙΚΑΙΡΑ ΚΑΙ ΑΝΕΠΙΚΑΙΡΑ
1962 Η ΗΘΙΚΗ ΣΥΝΕΙΔΗΣΗ ΚΑΙ ΤΑ ΠΡΟΒΛΗΜΑΤΑ ΤΗΣ
1963 ΦΙΛΟΣΟΦΙΚΑ ΠΡΟΒΛΗΜΑΤΑ
1965 ΑΓΩΝΕΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΓΩΝΙΑ ΓΙΑ ΤΗΝ ΠΑΙΔΕΙΑ
1966 ΑΜΕΡΙΚΗ. ΕΝΑ ΚΕΦΑΛΑΙΟ ΤΗΣ ΙΣΤΟΡΙΑΣ ΤΟΥ ΑΝΘΡΩΠΟΥ
1971 Ο ΛΟΓΟΣ ΚΑΙ Ο ΑΝΘΡΩΠΟΣ
1971 IMMANUEL KANT. ΔΟΚΙΜΙΑ. Εισαγωγή, μετάφραση, σχόλια.
1973 ΠΡΑΚΤΙΚΗ ΦΙΛΟΣΟΦΙΑ. Α'. ΒΙΟΣΟΦΙΑ Β'. ΜΙΚΡΕΣ ΤΟΜΕΣ ΣΕ ΜΕΓΑΛΑ ΖΗΤΗΜΑΤΑ
1974 DAVID HUME. ΔΟΚΙΜΙΑ (ΦΙΛΟΛΟΓΙΚΑ-ΗΘΙΚΑ-ΠΟΛΙΤΙΚΑ). Εισαγωγή, μετάφραση, σχόλια.
1974 Ο ΝΟΜΟΣ ΚΑΙ Η ΑΡΕΤΗ
1976 ΤΟ ΔΙΚΑΙΟ ΤΗΣ ΠΥΓΜΗΣ
1976 ΨΥΧΟΛΟΓΙΑ (Β' Λυκείου)
1976 ΠΟΛΙΤΕΙΑ ΚΑΙ ΔΙΚΑΙΟΣΥΝΗ
1976 Η ΠΑΙΔΕΙΑ, ΤΟ ΜΕΓΑΛΟ ΜΑΣ ΠΡΟΒΛΗΜΑ
1978 Α. ΔΕΛΜΟΥΖΟΣ. Η ΖΩΗ ΤΟΥ. ΕΠΙΛΟΓΗ ΑΠΟ ΤΟ ΕΡΓΟ ΤΟΥ
1978 Η ΚΡΙΣΗ ΤΟΥ ΠΟΛΙΤΙΣΜΟΥ ΜΑΣ
1979 ΟΙ ΔΡΟΜΟΙ ΤΗΣ ΖΩΗΣ
1979 DAVID HUME. ΔΟΚΙΜΙΑ (ΟΙΚΟΝΟΜΙΚΑ-ΙΣΤΟΡΙΚΑ-ΠΟΛΙΤΙΚΟΚΟΙΝΩΝΙΚΑ). Πρόλογος, μετάφραση, σχόλια.