Introduction to The Universal Sherlock Holmes
Volume 1 of The Universal Sherlock Holmes
Volume 2 of The Universal Sherlock Holmes
Volume 3 of The Universal Sherlock Holmes
Volume 4 of The Universal Sherlock Holmes

Limits of Knowledge (Including Methods)




C8740. -- A2992. Bengis, Nathan L. "Sherlock Stays After School," Illustrious Client's Second Case-Book. Edited by J. N. Williamson. [Indianapolis, Ind.: The Illustrious Clients, 1949.] p. 72-78.

----------. ----------, "An Addendum," Illustrious Client's Third Case-Book. Edited by J. N. Williamson and H. B. Williams. [Indianapolis, Ind.: The Illustrious Clients, 1953.] p. 15.

An enumeration of some of his "more glaring oversights, inconsistencies, and outright blunders."


C8741. -- A2993. Bennett, Edwin G. "The Anatomy of the Canon," BSJ, 6, No. 2 (April 1956), 83-86.

Watson bore such an aversion to spiritualism and its related pursuits that he chose Doyle as his literary agent, and then emphasized Holmes's use of the logical method of deduction to discredit Sir Arthur's illogical claims for spiritualism.


C8742. -- A2994. Berg, Stanton O. "Sherlock Holmes: Father of Scientific Crime Detection," The Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Police Science, 61, No. 3 (September 1970), 446-452.

----------. ----------, The Armchair Detective, 5, No. 2 (January 1972), 81-87, 98.

----------. "Trackin' Over Sherlock's Shoulder," The Montana Lawman's Gunsmoke Gazette [The Governor's Crime Control Commission], 1, No. 3 (January-February 1972), 4-5; 1, No. 4 (March-April 1972), 14, 17. illus.

The article establishes and thoroughly analyzes the concept that Doyle through Holmes acted as a catalyst in the evolving of the modern investigative, identification, and forensic sciences. It reviews what other authors have said on the subject as well as the credit given to Holmes by his contemporaries in the police science field. The impact on each of the important sciences (fingerprints, ballistics, questioned documents, forensic chemistry, etc.) is considered and the evidence carefully documented. In the process of documentation, much historical data on the forensic and police sciences are outlined.


C8743. -- A2995. Christ, Jay Finley. ["Review of The Unknown Murderer, by Theodor Reik"] American Journal of Police Science, 36, No. 4 (November-December 1945), 301-304.

A commentary on Dr. Reik's "frivolous discussion of certain references to the detective methods of one Sherlock Holmes."


C8744. -- A2999. Hall, Trevor H. "The Erudition of Sherlock Holmes," Sherlock Holmes: Ten Literary Studies. London: Gerald Duckworth & Co., [1969]. Chap. 4, p. 44-55.

The importance of its profound appraisal in determining his alma mater.


C8745. -- A3000. Hitchings, J. L. "Sherlock Holmes the Logician," BSJ [OS], 1, No. 2 (April 1946), 113-117.

"By one of the greatest strokes of genius in history, a character has been brought into being whose fame as a logician rivals that of the world's greatest thinkers."


C8746. -- A3001. Hogan, John C. "A Short Manual on Holmesian (Sherlock, That Is) Methodology for Criminologists, Criminals and T.V. Lawyers," The Brief [Phi Delta Phi Quarterly], 58, No. 1 (Fall 1962), 38-47.

"No man lives or has ever lived who has brought the same amount of study and of natural talent to the detection of crime as Mr. Sherlock Holmes.... Although none of Mr. Holmes's writings on crime are available today, they are recommended and would be valuable reading for anyone who contemplates a career in criminal work."


C8747. -- A3002. Hogan, John C. and Mortimer D. Schwartz. "The Manly Art of Observation and Deduction," The Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Police Science, 55, No. 1 (March 1964), 157-164.

----------. ----------, Malayan Police Magazine, 30, No. 2 (June-July 1964).

An examination of Holmes's power of observation and method of deduction.


C8748. -- A3003. Holmes, Roger W. "The Detective and His Art," The Rhyme of Reason: A Guide to Accurate and Mature Thinking. Student's edition. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, [1939]. Chap. 5, p. 147-168. (The Century Philosophy Series)

Partial contents: Sherlock Holmes and the Prediction Technique. -- The Psychology and Logic of Prediction Are Quite Different. -- Don't Look Now, But the Argument from Prediction Is Mighty Suspicious. -- Our Hero and the Local Constabulary: The Method of Reductio Ad Absurdum.


C8749. -- A3004. Kosloske, Ann M. "Sherlock Holmes: Spectacular Diagnostician," Marquette Medical Review, 29, No. 1 (January 1963), 29-31.

An interesting discussion of the Master and his methods by a senior medical student.


C8750. -- A3005. Krejci-Graf, Karl. "Sherlock Holmes, Scientist, Including Some Unpopular Opinions," SHJ, 8, No. 3 (Winter 1967), 72-78.

Contents: Introduction. -- What Constitutes a Scientist? -- Single Properties of Scientists. -- Hypotheses and Theories. -- Appreciation of Others. -- Limits of Knowledge. -- Watson As Biographer. -- Holmes's Knowledge of Special Sciences. -- Conclusion.


C8751. -- A3006. Kubicek, Earl C. "Mr. Sherlock Holmes: Scholar and Scientist," The Saint Mystery Magazine, 13, No. 6 (June 1960), 47-53.


C8752. -- A3007. Mackenzie, J. B. "Sherlock Holmes's Plots and Strategy," The Green Bag, 14 (September 1902), 407-411.

----------. ----------, BSJ Christmas Annual, No. 1 (1956), 56-61. (Incunabulum)

An unfavorable examination of his deductive process and legal transgressions.


C8753. -- A3008. [Maurice, Arthur Bartlett.] "The Ultimate Sources of Sherlock Holmes," The Bookman, 27 (April 1908), 113-114. (Chronicle and Comment)

The author briefly traces the evolution of the method of deductive reasoning which reached its pinnacle with Holmes.


C8754. -- A3009. McDade, Thomas M. "Sherlock Holmes and the F.B.I.," EQMM, 29, No. 2 (February 1957), 96-103

A former G-man compares the methods of the Master Detective with those of the Bureau.


C8755. -- A3010. Polak, A. Laurence. "Baker Street Reflections," Puffs, Balloons and Smokeballs. Illustrated by Leslie Starke. Little London, Chichester, Sussex: Justice of the Peace, Ltd., 1952. p. 59-65.

"For the ordinary lawyer, who fortunately spends little of his professional life in close contact with violent crime, the fascination of Sherlock Holmes lies in the intellectual mastery of his deductive methods."


C8756. -- A3011. Post, Melville Davisson. The Man Hunters. Illustrations by William D. I. Arnold. London: Hutchinson & Co., [1926]. ix, 348 p.

This book has several references to Holmes, and upholds him on the value of ashes, footprints, etc.


C8757. -- A3012. Prestige, Colin. "Sherlock Holmes--Detective," SHJ, 2, No. 3 (Summer 1955), 26-30.

The sixty chronicles are divided into three groups according to the detective work involved, and examples from each group are discussed to illustrate the Master's ability in his chosen profession.


C8758. -- A3013. Rhinelander, Philip H. "Patter Song: Sherlock Holmes," BSJ [OS], 1, No. 2 (April 1946), 152-153.

"The science of deduction / If you follow my instruction, / Must be based on observation..."


C8759. -- A3014. Scarlett, E. P. "The Method of Zadig," Archives of Internal Medicine, 117 (June 1966), 832-835.

A noted Canadian physician, author, and Sherlockian scholar discusses the methods of Voltaire's Zadig, Dr. Joseph Bell, and Holmes.


C8760. -- A3015. Schenck, Remsen Ten Eyck. "Baker Street Fables," BSJ, 2, No. 2 (April 1952), 85-92.

"Viewed dispassionately, on the evidence instead of purely through emotion, Holmes emerges not as a great loss to physical science but as a dabbler in chemistry on the small-boy level...; not as a potentially renowned concert violinist but as an ordinary music-lover with the added ability to play simple airs on the violin."


C8761. -- A3016. Silverstein, Albert. "Sherlock Holmes and the Interference Theory of Forgetting," BSJ, 14, No. 4 (December 1964), 216-218.

Holmes demonstrates his psychological acumen in Stud by propounding a theory of how people forget what is very contemporary. The theory states that we forget what we know as a result of the interference from new material (retroactive interference) or from previously learned materials (proactive interference). While the most recent versions of this theory emphasize the forgetting from prior materials, Holmes seemed to emphasize the forgetting produced by subsequently learned materials. However, considering that his statement appeared thirteen years prior to the first experimental evidence for any interference theory, it is a remarkable feat. The statement of Holmes's theory may be found in the passage in which he proudly announces his ignorance of the Copernican theory.


C8762. -- A3017. Silverstein, Albert. "Sherlock Holmes, Psychology, and Phrenology; or, Sailing Full Steam Ahead Requires a Full Head of Steam," BSJ, 22, No. 1 (March 1972), 18-23.

An analysis is made of the Master's techniques of psychological deductions, and examples are given of each. These techniques include deductions of a person's prior circumstances from their effects upon his anatomy and / or upon the condition of his possessions, deductions of a person's prior behaviour from the effects of such behaviour on his clothing or visage, deductions of a person's actions from a motivational analysis of that person, and deductions about a person's inner behaviour from observations of outer behaviour. These techniques are totally irrelevant to the practice of phrenology, which Holmes has been alleged to have engaged in, and it can be shown that his entire attitude toward science and practical affairs is antithetical to phrenology. More likely, Holmes's psychological acumen is related to the theories and techniques of Francis Galton, the father of the study of individual differences in psychology. (See also DA3160 -- DA3161.)


C8763. -- A3018. Starrett, Vincent. "The Methods of Mr. Sherlock Holmes," The Private Life of Sherlock Holmes. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1933. p. 19-38.

----------. ----------, ----------. Rev. and enl. The University of Chicago Press, [1960]. p. 13-26.


C8764. -- A3019. Thorwald, Jürgen. "Spuren im Staub; oder Etappen der forensischen Chemie und Biologie," Die Stunde der Detektive: Werden und Welten der Kriminalistik. [Zürich]: Droemer, [1966]. II, 1, p. 286-295.

----------. "Clues in the Dust: Forensic Chemistry and Biology," Crime and Science: The New Frontier in Criminology. Tr. by Richard and Clara Winston. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, [1967]. II, 1, p. 233-235.

Unfortunately, the translation of the section on Holmes and Watson has been considerably condensed.


C8765. -- A3020. Wernette, J. Philip. "Holmes and Watson Were Wrong," The Michigan Quarterly Review, 10, No. 2 (Spring 1971), 119-124.

"Professor Wernette shows that Holmes's knowledge in all fields was much greater than Watson indicated in that famous tabulation in A Study in Scarlet; Holmes did not ignore information that might crowd out other data but acted on the principle that `All knowledge comes useful to the detective.'" (Julian Wolff)


C8766. -- A3021. Williamson, J. N. "Sherlock's Murder Bag," Illustrious Client's Third Case-Book. Edited by J. N. Williamson and H. B. Williams. [Indianapolis, Ind.: The Illustrious Clients, 1953.] p. 84-88.

About some of the articles he used to aid him in his investigations.


C8767. -- B1369. Ashton-Wolfe, H. "The Debt of the Police to Detective Fiction," The Illustrated London News (February 27, 1932), 320, 328.

"Gaboriau and Conan Doyle pave the way towards scientific investigation: Sherlock Holmes methods now in universal use." (Subtitle)


C8768. -- B1370. Bensen, D. R. "You Know My Methods, Don't You?" EQMM, 59, No. 1 (January 1972), 97. (Criminalimerick)

"The client's confused and distraught, / But Holmes sees the problem is fraught / With amusing details / And -- it never once fails -- / Some lessons that Watson gets taught."


C8769. -- B1371. Copi, Irving M. "The Detective as Scientist," Introduction to Logic. 4th ed. New York: The Macmillan Co.; London: Collier-Macmillan Ltd., [1972]. p. 435-444.

Hypothesis, deduction, and theory of problems in Twis, Blue, Stud, and Vall are analyzed and discussed.


C8770. -- B1372. Deighton, Len. "Prophet of Crime," The Observer Magazine (January 6, 1974), 16-20.

----------. "Introduction," The Valley of Fear. [London]: John Murray and Jonathan Cape, [1974]. p. 7-13.


C8771. -- B1373. Dricks, Victor. "Sherlock Holmes -- Science and Hypothesis, HO, 3. No. (January 1973), 15-19.

A detailed examination of the steps Holmes took in formulating hypotheses.


C8772. -- B1374. Kellogg, Richard L. "The Holmesian Paradigm of Problem Solving," Lifelong Learning: The Adult Years, 1, No. 7 (March 1978), 4-7.

With a cover illustration by Sidney Paget.

Instructors frequently encounter negative reactions when they present students with formal theories and research studies that concern problem-solving. Students may be more enthusiastic if these topics are supplemented with exposure to the Holmes paradigm. The Canon serves as an excellent vehicle for illustrating the cognitive processes such as problem-solving, perception, deduction, creativity, and divergent thinking.


C8773. -- B1375. Kubicek, Earl C. "Mr. Sherlock Holmes: Scholar and Scientist," Illinois Tech Engineer, 14, No. 4 (May 1949), 9, 26, 28, 30.

First appearance of DA3006.


C8774. -- B1376. Lowndes, Robert A. W. "`You Know My Methods, Watson,'" HO Annual, No. 2 (1975), 24-25.

Watson used Holmes's methods in his medical practice but failed to use them in the detection of crime. Holmes wanted it that way!


C8775. -- B1377. Lundmark, Knut. "Sherlock Holmes som `vetenskaplig' detektiv" ["Sherlock Holmes as a Scientific Detective"], Värld och Vetande, Nr. 1 (1961), 12-16.


C8776. -- B1378. Maloney, Shanon. "Sherlock Holmes Methods Urged in Tracking Down Human Diseases," The Cincinnati Post & Times Star (October 29, 1959), 44.

At a medical meeting Dr. Joseph V. Klauder, "the Sherlock Holmes of the dermatology business," recommends Holmes's detection methods.

See also DA3039.


C8777. -- B1379. Polak, A. Laurence. "Baker Street Reflections." Justice of the Peace and Local Government Review [London], 115, No. 35 (September 1, 1951), 553-554.

First appearance of DA3010.

----------. ----------, The Sherlock Holmes Scrapbook. p. 78.


C8778. -- B1380. Ruby, Lionel. "The Logic of Sherlock Holmes," The Art of Making Sense: A Guide to Logical Thinking. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co., [1954]. Chap. 17, p. 262-277.

----------. ----------, ----------. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co., [1968]. Chap. 17, p. 220-233.

An analysis of the detective's method of observation and deduction in RedH, Sign, Silv, and Stud.


C8779. -- B1381. Sebeok, Thomas A., and Jean Umiker-Seboek. "`You Know My Method': A Juxtaposition of Charles S. Pierce and Sherlock Holmes," Semiotica, 26, Nos. 3-4 (1979), 203-250.

The "detectival method" of the great American polymath and semiotician, Charles S. Peirce, is compared with "semiotic" of Sherlock Holmes. Peirce's principles of guessing, the processes whereby we form hunches about the world, or, more technically, of abductive inferences, are found to be similar, in significant ways, to the processes whereby Holmes forms a hypothesis and tests predictions drawn therefrom. The pivotal resemblances between Peirce and Holmes are traced back to four common sources: medicine, chemistry, Edgar Allan Poe, and drama. Twelve illustrations accompany the article.


C8780. -- B1382. [Senter, Nancy.] "On Bootlaces," SM, 5, No. 4 (November 30, 1977), 12-13.

If "great issues may hang from a bootlace" (Holmes), it is also conceivable that "the Master could read clues to one's character from the state of one's bootlaces: slovenly, careless, precise."


C8781. -- B1383. Sheridan, Daniel. "Scientists (Mad and Otherwise)," BSM, No. 11 (September 1977), 12-14.

"Taken as a pair, Holmes and Watson represent the twin arms of orthodox Victorian science: the slightly off-beat (but nevertheless solid) discoverer of truth, and the more genial popularizer of that truth, the family doctor."


C8782. -- B1384. Shreffler, Philip A. "Come Now, Mr. Holmes," The Noble Bachelors' Red-Covered Volume. Edited by Philip A. Shreffler. St. Louis: Birchmoor Press, 1974. p. 37.

Holmes's best-known maxim, "... when you have excluded the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth," is based on a fallacious presupposition.


C8783. -- B1385. Swaffer, Hannen. "Hannen Swaffer Says ...," The People (July 12, 1953).

----------. ----------, The Sherlock Holmes Scrapbook. p. 94.

The noted Fleet Street columnist asks if Holmes transformed criminal investigation.


C8784. -- B1387. Truzzi, Marcello. "Sherlock Holmes: Applied Social Psychologist," The Humanities as Sociology: An Introductory Reader. Edited by Marcello Truzzi. Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. Merrill Pub. Co., [1973]. Chap. 7, p. 93-126.

An essay on the virtues and limitations of the analytic method of crime detection as proposed by Holmes. The paper demonstrates his early application of the hypothetico-deductive method to the area of criminal investigation. Examination of Holmes's own abductive inferences is presented and critical scrutiny is given to his other observations related to psychology and sociology.


C8785. -- B1388. Truzzi, Marcello, and Scot Morris. "Sherlock Holmes as a Social Scientist," [Illustrated by Gene Holtan]. Psychology Today, 5, No. 7 (December 1971), 62-65, 85-86.

"A sociologist and clinical psychologist point out that the Sherlock Holmes adventures are a primer in applying the scientific method to human problems." Includes the thought-reading episode from Card.

Reviews: Psychology Today, 5, No. 10 (March 1972), 6, 8 (Anne Olsen; Saul Cohen).


C8786. Altick, Richard D. Preface to Critical Reading. New York: Henry Holt & Co., [1946]. xix, 312 p.

----------. ----------. Rev. ed. New York: Henry Holt & Co., [1951]. xxiii, 359 p.

----------. ----------. 3rd ed. New York: Henry Holt & Co., [1956]. 298 p.

----------. ----------. 4th ed. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, [1960]. 326 p.

Contains an example and discussion of Holmes's deductive reasoning in Norw, two statements by Holmes, and a quotation from Soli.


C8787. Andriacco, Daniel M. "The Methods of Sherlock Holmes," BSD, 2, No. 5 (September 1992), 3-4.

Enumerates fifteen techniques that were used by Holmes to solve crimes.


C8788. Armstrong, Walter P., Jr. "The Razor's Edge," WW, 12, No. 1 (May 1989), 5-9.

The deductive methods of Sherlock Holmes bear a remarkable resemblance to those of William of Ockham, a 14th-century scholastic philosopher. "Occam's Razor" is based upon the premise that assumptions introduced to explain anything must not be multiplied beyond necessity, whereas the method of Sherlock Holmes is to balance probabilities and choose the most likely, basically the same thing. Both were Englishmen and graduates of English universities. Does intellectual history repeat itself after five centuries?


C8789. Baden-Powell, Robert. Scouting for Boys: A Handbook for Instruction in Good Citizenship, by Robert Baden-Powell (first Baron Baden-Powell of Gilwell). Founder of the World Scout Movement and Chief Scout of the World. London: The Scout Association, [34th ed. reprinted 1967; reprinted with revised appendix 1974; reprinted 1977]. xiii. 281 p. illus.

Includes comments about Holmes and Bell's methods of observation and deduction on pages 121, 146-147, and 150-151.


C8790. Berg, Stanton O. "Sherlock Holmes: Father of Scientific Crime Detection," The Criminologist, 6, No. 19 (Winter 1971), 19-32.

"A lifelong devotee of the `Sage of Baker Street,' the author presents an interesting picture of the parallels in Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's stories and the beginnings of some of the forensic sciences."

Reprinted from The Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Police Science, September 1970 (DA2994).


C8791. Block, Eugene B. Science vs. Crime: The Evolution of the Police Lab. [San Francisco]: Cragmont Publications, [1979]. ix, 197 p. illus.

An interesting book on the development of scientific crime detection that includes a photograph of Doyle, several pages on Holmes, and a chapter about Luke S. May, "America's Sherlock Holmes.


C8792. Brisson, David. "The Case of the Sleuth with the Defective Imagination," SHJ, 15, No. 4 (Summer 1982), 101-103.

According to the author, Holmes's lack of visual imagination -- his inability to visualize the whole from the parts -- adversely affects his deductions. Several examples are cited to show that those deductions that make sense are rarer than those that do not. They are the result of poor visualization. Although Holmes prides himself on his ability to deduce, he is actually very bad at it.


C8793. Brody, Howard. "Sherlock Holmes and Logic: A Rejoinder," BSM, No. 38 (Summer 1984), 21-22, 28.

Contrary to Ann Byerly's analysis, Holmes seldom displayed impeccable logic and frequently committed the fallacy of the undistributed middle term. Holmes relied much more on intuition and imagination rather than logic in his approach to detection, which has hurt neither his results nor the popularity of Watson's narratives.


C8794. Byerly, Ann. "`It Is the Scientific Use of the Imagination,'" BSM, No. 36 (Winter 1983), 32-34.

What makes Holmes a great detective and the world's most famous logician is his flexibility, his proclivity for working creatively within the strict bounds of that discipline. It is this Science of Induction that allows him to plow ahead and test alternatives that sometimes yield more evidence. >From one set of premises there is a finite number of deductions that can be made, but with the same set one can make any number of inductions from bold (general) to cautious (specific).


C8795. Cahn, Steven M. "The Elements of Argument," Reason at Work: Introductory Readings in Philosophy. Edited by Steven M. Cahn, Patricia Ketcher, and George Sher. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, [1984]. p. 13-15.

Uses Holmes to introduce students to logical analysis.


C8796. Carter, Robert M. The Contribution of Sherlock Holmes to Detection. Edited by Philip L. Weller. [Fareham, Hampshire]: Sherlock Publications, May 1993. 30 p. illus. (Sherlock Holmes Monograph Studies)

"A possible outline for the book The Whole Art of Detection by Sherlock Holmes."

Contents: Editor's Introduction. -- Preface. -- Pt. 1. Personal Characteristics. -- Pt. 2. Observation, Deduction, and Knowledge. -- Pt. 3. General Considerations. -- Pt. 4. Special Considerations. -- Pt. 5. Scientific-Forensic Investigative Methods. -- Pt. 6. Special Skills of the Investigator. -- Pt. 7. The Investigator and the Law. -- Pt. 8. Physical Requirements and Self-Defence. -- Pt. 9. Summary.

Illustrations by Sidney Paget.


C8797. Cassiday, Bruce, ed. Roots of Detection: The Art of Deduction Before Sherlock Holmes. New York: Frederick Ungar Pub. Co., [1983]. vi, 195 p. (Recognitions)

Published in hardcover and paperback editions.

The introduction includes a brief discussion of Holmes's method of deduction.


C8798. Charnock, Ian. "The Elements of Holmes," Police Review (December 18, 1987), 2512-2513. illus.

A discussion of the police methods in the Canon.


C8799. Cochran, William R. "The Infinite Capacity," WW, 12, No. 1 (May 1989), 24-31.

Investigates specific writings of Giovani Morelli, Purkyne, Ellice Hopkins, and especially Edgar Allan Poe to show how these writings may have influenced Holmes in developing his method of scientific reasoning.


C8800. Cody, David. "The Detective in Lamb's Clothing," SHR, 1, Nos. 3-4 (1987), 92-95, 127-128.

A bored Dr. Watson, meeting Sherlock Holmes for the first time in Stud, plays the detective and attempts to deduce his occupation, but fails ignominiously -- in part at least because a psychologically vulnerable Holmes, resenting the intrusion, deliberately misleads him (as subsequent stories reveal) by feigning ignorance of various fields of knowledge, including literature. In doing so, Holmes displays a sense of both humor and irony, for his assumed persona is itself a literary one, modelled on Charles Lamb's Elia, who displays a nostalgic but similarly defiant naiveté in "The Old and New Schoolmaster."


C8801. Copi, Irving M. "The Detective as Scientist," Introduction to Logic. New York: The Macmillan Co., [1953]. p. 399-411.

First edition of DB1371.


C8802. Cox, Don Richard. "`The One Fixed Point in a Changing Age,'" CH, 16, No. 4 (Summer 1993), 12-18.

"Faith, disillusion, and certitude in the world of Sherlock Holmes and Arthur Conan Doyle." (Subtitle)


C8803. Dalton, Stephen W. "Sherlock Holmes and the Age of Empiricism," DC, 3, No. 1 (January 1990), 8-13.

"Arthur Conan Doyle was a product of the age of empiricism of nineteenth-century Britain, and the literary symbol of that age that still remains with us today is the product of Doyle's society and of his fertile imagination -- an expression of the empirical method, of the scientific attitude which has always rested on rational impartiality and a stringent regard for systematic accuracy -- represented by none other than Sherlock Holmes."


C8804. Dennett, Daniel C. "Intentional Systems in Cognitive Ethology: The `Panglossian Paradigm' Defended," The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 6 (1983), 343-390.

One section of this long article is entitled "How to Use Anecdotal Evidence: The Sherlock Holmes Method."


C8805. Dinegar, Robert H. Sherlock Holmes, Scientist and Chemist, or He Published So He Didn't Perish. Los Alamos, N.M.: Unpublished typescript, May 30, 1985. 16 p.

The Canon presents considerable evidence to support the thesis that the world's first consulting detective was a scientist in the wide meaning of the word and that one of his many expertises was in the field of chemistry. Investigations of this area of Holmes's life have been carried out for almost four decades and the evidence duly recorded in the literature. This paper reviews the primary data as well as discusses past and present conclusions that have been drawn from the facts.


C8806. Dodd, Loudon. "Sherlock Holmes: His Methods and Literary Pedigree," Notes and Queries, 11th Series, 10 (October 17, 1914), 309.

Response: (November 7, 1914), 376 (W. F. Prideaux).

----------. ----------, BSJ, 37, No. 2 (June 1987), 99. (Incunabulum)

Suggests that Holmes's methods may have had an Oriental origin, in Voltaire's Zadig.


C8807. Eco, Umberto, and Thomas A. Sebeok, eds. The Sign of Three: Dupin, Holmes, Peirce. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, [1983]. xi, 236 p. illus. (Advences in Semiotics)

----------. El segno dei tre: Holmes, Dupin, Peirce. A cura di Umberto Eco e Thomas A. Sebeok. [Traduzione di Giampaolo Proni.] Milano: Bompiani, 1983. 309 p.

Contents: Preface. -- Abbreviations in the Text. -- 1. One, Two, Three Spells uberty, by Thomas A. Sebeok. -- 2. "You Know My Method": A Juxtaposition of Charles S. Peirce and Sherlock Holmes, by Thomas A. Sebeok and Jean Umiker-Sebeok. -- 3. Sherlock Holmes: Applied Social Psychologist, by Marcello Truzzi. -- 4. Morelli, Freud, and Sherlock Holmes: Clues and Scientific Method, by Carlo Ginzburg. -- 5. To Guess or Not to Guess? by Massimo A. Bonfantini and Giampaolo Proni. -- 6. Peirce, Holmes, Popper, by Gian Paolo Carettini. -- 7. Sherlock Holmes Confronts Modern Logic: Toward a Theory of Information-Seeking Through Questioning, by Jaakko Hintikka and Merrill B. Hintikka. -- 8. Sherlock Holmes Formalized, by Jaakko Hintikka. -- 9. The Body of the Detective Model: Charles S. Peirce and Edgar Allan Poe, by Nancy Harrowitz. -- 10. Horns, Hooves, Insteps: Some Hypotheses on Three Types of Abduction, by Umberto Eco. -- References.

Reviews: BSM, No. 41 (Spring 1985), 45-47 (William D. Jenkins); Modern Fiction Studies, 31 (Summer 1985), 382-389 (Edward S. Lauterbach).


C8808. Feinberg, Arthur W. "Mentor Sherlock," Newsday/ Discovery (September 16, 1986), 9.

"Sherlock Holmes has much to teach us today, a century after his first appearance in print. Young doctors and old can still learn from an acknowledged master of observation. Good detectives and good physicians have a great deal in common."


C8809. "Forerunners of Sherlock Holmes," Illustrations by H. R. Millar. The Strand Magazine, 32 (July 1906), 50-56.

----------. Frankfort Heights, Ill.: The Occupants of the Empty House, 1981. [8] p. illus.

Compares Holmes's methods with those used by Voltaire's Zadig, Poe's Dupin, Gaboriau's Lecoq, and Collins' Sergeant Cuff.


C8810. Fredriksson, Karl G. "`You know my method...,'" Jury, 14, Nr. 1 (1985), 36-39. illus.

"Om Sherlock Holmes's method."


C8811. Gilpin, Scott. "Holmes Answers Man's Basic Needs," DC, 3, No. 3 (July 1990), 4-7.

"It is the purpose of this paper to demonstrate how Doyle's writing style, through the characterization of Holmes, allows us (the readers) to reach a higher order throught process and develop psychological skills necessary for development and survival."


C8812. Ginzburg, Carlo. Miti emblemi spie: morfologia e storia. Torino: Giulio Einaudi Editore, [1986].

----------. Myths, Emblems, Clues. Tr. by John and Anne C. Tedeschi. London: Hutchinson Radius, [1990]. xvii, 231 p. illus.

Contains a chapter entitled: "Clues: Roots of an Evidential Paradigm," which includes a section on the methods of Morelli, Holmes, and Freud.


C8813. Ginzburg, Carlo. "Morelli, Freud and Sherlock Holmes: Clues and Scientific Method," [shorter version] Revista di storia contemporanea, 7 (1978).

----------. "Clues: Roots of a Scientific Paradigm," Theory and Society, 7, No. 3 (May 1979), 273-288.

----------. "Morelli, Freud and Sherlock Holmes: Clues and Scientific Method," [longer version] Ombre Rosse [Red Shadows], 29 (June 1979), 80-107.

----------. ----------, Crisi della Ragione [Crisis of Reason]. Edited by A. Gargani. Turin: 1979.

----------. ----------, Introduction and tr. by Anna Davin. History Workshop: A Journal of Socialist Historians, No. 9 (Spring 1980), 1-3 (editorial), 5-36.


C8814. Helik, Patricia. "Introductory Passages, The Sign of the Four, and a Few Other Thoughts," CH, 5, No. 1 (Autumn 1981), 4-7.

Discusses some of the introductory deductions Holmes makes simply to amaze Watson as well as other deductions relevant to the case at hand.


C8815. Herzog, Evelyn A. "His Most Valuable Method," PP (NS) (December 1988), 13-14.

An examination of the value of his wide acquisition of criminal data and his method of taking nothing for granted when considering seemingly similar circumstances in Croo and Devi.


C8816. Hudson, Reggie L. "Theory, Hypothesis, and Sherlock Holmes," BSJ, 41, No. 2 (June 1991), 86-92.

"It is hoped that the critics of Holmes's methods will acknowledge that while the Master did not use laboratory science in solving the published cases, he did use an equally important part of science. Sherlock Holmes used the methodology of science as a framework in which to investigate crime. He understood what scientists mean by theory and hypothesis and he used these words properly. It is simply a matter of words speaking louder than actions."


C8817. Jones, Kelvin I. "Holmes the Investigator," SHJ, 16, No. 3 (Winter 1983), 79-82.

This examination of the criminological methods of Holmes makes reference to the pioneering work of Hans Grosse, a contemporary of the Master and reveals that Holmes was a pioneer in his field. The article is part of a much larger work about Holmes and criminology entitled The Making of Sherlock Holmes.


C8818. Jones, Kelvin I. The Making of Sherlock Holmes. [New York]: Magico Magazine, [1984]. 73 p.

Contents: March 1881: Enter Mr. Sherlock Holmes. -- 1. A Stroll to St. Bart's. -- 2. A Student of Medicine? -- 3. Studies in Scarlet. -- 4. Lessons in Montague Street. -- 5. A Dabbler in Poisons. -- 6. Down at the Yard. -- 7. The Art of Tracing Footsteps. -- 8. Postscript: `You know my methods'. -- 9. Bibliography. -- 10. Appendix: Some Names for the Index.

The first detailed examination of the Master as a forensic expert, seen against the emerging tradition of criminology in 19th century England. Contains much detail of current criminal cases and an invaluable appendix that covers all the historical criminal references quoted in the Canon.

Reviews: BSM, No. 41 (Spring 1985), 55 (Robert S. Katz); SHJ, 17, No. 2 (Summer 1985), 54-55 (Nicholas Utechin).


C8819. Keefauver, Brad. "Art in the Blood: Holmes's Use of Logical Synthesis," WW, 3, No. 3 (January 1981), 24-26.

The relationship of creativity and deduction in Holmes's method is examined, focussing on that which he called "logical synthesis."


C8820. Keefauver, Brad. The Elementary Methods of Sherlock Holmes. [New York]: Magico Magazine, [1987]. 145 p.

"Of this edition, 60 copies have been signed and numbered by Brad Keefauver."

Contents: Pt. 1. Learning from the Master. -- Pt. 2. The Contents of a Brain-Attic. -- Pt. 3. Data-Gathering and Other Tricks of the Trade. -- Pt. 4. Deduction Plus.

Reviews: BSJ, 38, No. 3 (September 1988), 184 (Philip A. Shreffler); BSM, No. 63 (Fall 1990), 33 (Donald K. Pollock); P&D, No. 112 (January 1988), 2-3, 7 (Robert C. Burr); SHJ, 19, No. 2 (Summer 1989), 63 (Nicholas Utechin); WW, 11, No. 2 (September 1988), 30-33 (Gordon R. Speck).


C8821. Kelley, David. "A Turn for Deduction," BSJ, 42, No. 4 (December 1992), 200-202.

A brief survey of Holmes's logical methods, noting that many of his inferences are deductive, as Holmes himself often claimed, and that instances of inductive generalization are rare in the Canon.


C8822. Kellogg, Richard L. "Holmes and the Notorious Muller," Calabash, No. 3 (March 1983), 42-47.

In the 1860's Inspector Michael Kerressey of the London Metropolitan Police did a masterful job of tracking down the railway killer, Franz Muller. A review of the Muller case suggests that Holmes was familiar with the investigation and applied some of Kerressey's methods in his own cases. Kerressey and Holmes were both pioneers in adapting the scientific method to the field of criminal investigation.


C8823. Kellogg, Richard L. "Sherlock Holmes and the Educational Process," Teaching of Psychology, 7, No. 1 (February 1980), 41-44.

"It is common for educators to encounter negative reactions when presenting students with theories and research studies which concern human learning. More interest is generated when lectures and discussions on this topic are supplemented with exposure to the Master of Baker Street. Excerpts from the fictional material serve as an excellent vehicle for introducing and illustrating such learning processes as deduction, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, and divergent thinking."


C8824. Kellogg, Richard L., and Barbara J. Kellogg. "Problem Solving with Sherlock Holmes," Teaching English in the Two-Year College, 7, No. 3 (Spring 1981), 223-226.

English teachers can utilize the Holmes literature to guide students in their problem-solving endeavour.


C8825. Kruger, John R. "Holmes's Methodology Foreshadowed in Mongolian Historical Chronicle," SHR, 2, No. 4 (1990), 169-170.

The author compares Holmes's method of deducing occupations and the Hero's method in Erdeni-yin Tobci (The Jewelled Summary) by Sagang Sechen as an example of how Oriental literature influenced the Sacred Writings.


C8826. Lauterbach, Edward S. "In the Tracks of the Great Detective," Yellowback Library (March-April 1984), 4-5.

Explores similarities of incident and methods of deduction between Holmes and the three boy detectives in Clarence Young's The Motor Boys on the Wing (1912), noting that the conclusions drawn from tire tracks in Young's book are both appropriate and Canonical.


C8827. Maugans, James D. "The Grammatical Lawyer," The Practical Lawyer, 31, No. 6 (September 1, 1985), 8-9.

The first section, entitled "Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Livingstone," discusses the difference between induction and deduction.


C8828. Maximum Brainpower, by the Editors of Prevention Magazine Health Books. Emmaus, Pa.: Rodale Press, [1989]. 176 p. illus. (Prevention's Library of Medical Care and Natural Healing)

Contains a Paget illustration from Scan and a brief comment on Holmes's reasoning ability (p. 152).


C8829. Moss, Robert A. "Brains and Attics," BSJ, 41, No. 2 (June 1991), 93-95.

Holmes's famous analogy, that the human brain is like an attic that contains limited space and must therefore be carefully stocked with appropriate furniture (Stud, Five), is shown to derive from prior usage by Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. (1809-1894), the famous American physician, professor and author. O. W. Holmes was a particular favorite of Arthur Conan Doyle, and it is conjectured that the Literary Agent interpolated O. W. Holmes's dicta in Watson's manuscripts.


C8830. Oderwald, A.K., and J.H. Sebus. "The Physician and Sherlock Holmes," Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 84 (March 1991).

Compares the way Holmes solves his cases with the way physicians work.


C8831. Reik, Theodor. Der Unbekannte Mörder. Von der Tat Zum Täter. Wien: Internationaler Psychoanalytischer Verlag, 1932. 183 p.

----------. The Unknown Murderer. Translated from the German by Katherine Jones. London: Leonard and Virginia Woolf at the Hogarth Press, and The Institute of Psycho-analysis, 1936. 260 p. (The International Psychoanalytical Library, edited by Ernest Jones, No. 27)

----------. ----------. Translated from the German by Katherine Jones. New York: International Universities Press, [1945]. 260 p.

----------. ----------, The Compulsion to Confess: On the Psychoanalysis of Crime and Punishment. New York: Farrar, Straus and Cudahy, [1959]. p. 1-173.

Contains references to Holmes and his methods of observation and deduction, which "are still enviable" (Internationaler Psychoanalytischer Verlag, p. 7-8, 18, 177; Leonard and Virginia Woolf, p. 13, 27, 245-246; Farrar, p. 6, 16).

See also DA2995.


C8832. Richards, Dana. "Holmes's Axiom: Sherlock Holmes and Reasoning," SHR, 3, No. 2 (1991), 70-73.

A revised and enlarged version of the author's previous article on the subject.


C8833. Richards, Dana. "Occam's Razor and Holmes's Maxim," WW, 9, No. 2 (September 1986), 26-28.

How well would Holmes's methods serve him in the pursuit of science? Is his maxim, " ... when you have excluded the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth" (Bruc), a useful principle? Scientists have used Occam's Razor (i.e., when confronted with two consistent explanations, we should accept the simpler, more natural one) for centuries as the method for deciding what is believed and what is not. This seems to be poles apart from the maxim that favours the improbable. Of the two principles, Holmes's is certainly the soundest; it is easily defended on logical grounds. However, in practice our knowledge is imperfect, our data spotty, and it is argued that Occam's Razar should have priority. The most interesting examples come from the areas of fringe science where we find that strict use of Holmes's maxim can lead to conclusions much different from those scientists have arrived at using Occam's principle.


C8834. Rodin, Alvin E., and Jack D. Key. "The Scientific Holmes: A Survey of Science, Medicine and Deduction in the Sixty Tales," SHR, 1, Nos. 3-4 (1987), 81-86, 116-112.

----------. ----------, BC, 9, No. 4 (May-June 1992), 4-16.

A discussion of the Canonical tales from the point of view of forensic sciences and medicine.


C8835. Salmon, Wesley C. Logic. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, [1963]. xiv, 114 p. (Foundations of Philosophy Series)

----------. ----------. 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, [1973]. x, 150 p. (Foundations of Philosophy Series)

To demonstrate argument and inference in logic (chap. 1, p. 1-17), the author discusses the deductions Holmes's made from Henry Baker's hat. Salmon concludes that "Sherlock Holmes is a prime example of a man with superb reasoning powers. He is extremely skillful at making inferences and drawing conclusions. When we examine this ability we see, however, that it does not lie in utilizing a set of rules to guide his thinking .... Holmes's abilities consist of factors such as his keen curiosity, his high native intelligence, his fertile imagination, his acute powers of perception, his wealth of general information, and his extreme ingenuity. No set of rules can provide a substitute for such abilities."


C8836. Sanders, William B., ed. The Sociologist as Detective: An Introduction to Research Methods. Edited with introduction and exercises by William B. Sanders. 2nd ed. New York: Praeger Publishers, [1976]. xi, 292 p.

Published in hardcover and paperback editions.

In addition to reprinting "Sherlock Holmes: Applied Social Psychologist," by Marcello Truzzi (p. 50-86) (DB1387), there are references to Holmes in the text of the book and on the back cover; a profile of Holmes also appears on the front cover.


C8837. Savery, Ken. "The Thinking Man," SR, No. 10 (Autumn Term 1992), 4-5.

Comments on and examples of Holmes's thought processes.


C8838. Sebeok, Thomas A., and Jean Umiker-Sebeok. `You Know My Method': A Juxtaposition of Charles S. Peirce and Sherlock Holmes. Foreword by Max H. Fisch. Illustrated with photographs. Bloomington, Ind.: Gaslight Publications, 1980. 84 p.

Slightly revised from the first appearance, without the foreword, in Semiotica, 1979 (DB1381).

[ ----------. Sherlock Holmes no Kiogoron. Tr. by Takao Tomiyama. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1981.] xviii, 170 p. illus.

Winner of the 4th annual Nobuhara Award for the best Japanese translation of a Sherlockian book.

----------. "Du kennst meine Methods": Charles S. Peirce und Sherlock Holmes. Aus dem Amerikanischen von Achim Eschbach. [Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1982]. 104 p. (Neue Folge Band 121)

----------. Ismeri a modszeremet? Avagy: A mesterdetektiv logkaja. [Forditotta: Szili Jozesef Budapest: Gondolat, 1990]. 83 p.

Reviews: BSM, No. 21 (Spring 1980), 29-30 (Michael H. Keen); CN (NS), 4, No. 2 (July-December 1981), 11-19 (Chris Redmond); Gaslight Publications, Catalogue No. 1 (Winter-Spring 1981), 5 (Jack Tracy); Journal of the History of Ideas, 41 (October 1980); Philosophical Review, 92 (January 1983), 110-113 (Bruce Altshuler); Recherches Semiotiques/Semiotic Inquiry, 1 (1981), 87-90 (Harald Ohlendorf); SHJ, 15, No. 1 (Winter 1980), 29 (Nicholas Utechin).


C8839. Shepherd, Walter. "Holmes's Science," On the Scent with Sherlock Holmes: Some Old Problems Resolved. London: Arthur Barker Ltd., [1978] p. 25-46. illus.

An assessment of the detective's knowledge of botany, toxicology, anatomy, pathology, zoology, chemistry, archaeology, and geology, the last serving to fix the location of his retirement in Sussex.


C8840. Simpson, Keith. Sherlock Holmes on Medicine and Science. With an introduction by Isaac Asimov and an appreciation by E. Stanley Palm. [New York]: Magico Magazine, [1983]. xi, 32 p.

Limited to 500 copies, of which 121 are numbered and signed by Simpson and Asimov.

Contents: Introduction by Isaac Asimov. -- A Modern-Day Sherlock Holmes: An Appreciation by Stanley Palm. -- Sherlock Holmes on Medicine and Science. -- What Are Your Qualifications, Mr. Holmes? -- Sherlock Holmes's Qualifications as a Scientific Detective. -- You See--But You Do Not Observe. -- Dr. Watson's Contributions.

Reviews: BSM, No. 37 (Spring 1934), 43-44 (Howard Brody); SHJ, 17, No. 1 (Winter 1984), 18-19 (Nicholas Utechin).


C8841. Speck, Gordon R. "Holmes's Concurrent Cases: The Method Exemplified," WW, 8, No. 3 (January 1986), 29-30.

Similarities between Blue and SixN exist which, along with their internal and publication chronologies, identify and show the development of the method by which Holmes can simultaneously solve a dozen cases.


C8842. Stewart, Richard L. "Extrasensory Sherlock: SH, ESP, and Body Language," BSJ, 29, No. 4 (December 1979), 200-208. illus.

Holmes's "mind-reading" in Card is one of many instances that show he knew body language. (Perhaps he took his training from Darwin or else Poe's Dupin.) Although nonverbal communication and telepathy are mutually exclusive by definition, they have some characteristics in common. The former, however, can be explained scientifically while the latter cannot. Holmes, whose methods are never grounded in the supernatural, admits that "results without causes are impressive." So it is with ESP.

Review: BSJ, 30, No. 2 (June 1980), 112-113 (Dana A. Snow).


C8843. Struik, Dirk. Dr. Watson's Mischief, or Holmes as Scientist. Cambridge, Mass.: Friends of Irene Adler, 1981. 6 p. (Publication No. 8)

Limited to 50 numbered copies.


C8844. Swiggum, Philip. "The Ideal Reasoner," Explorations, No. 15 (September 1991), 5-6; No. 16 (December 1991), 7; No. 17 (March 1992), 5; No. 18 (June 1992), 9-11.

A scholarly article, in four parts, on the distinctions between deductive and inductive reasoning.


C8845. Thorwald, Jürgen. "A análise microbiológica de traços," Enciclopédia da Luta Contra o Crime. 1973. p. 1160-1164. illus.

"Extraído de A Hora do Detetive."

With a full-page color illustration of Holmes by Serge Martinez and a photograph of Doyle.


C8846. [Uchii, Soshichi. A Study on the Reasoning of Sherlock Holmes. Tokyo: K_odan-sha Pub. Co., 1988.] 191 p. illus.

Text in Japanese.

Holmes was well informed about logic and scientific methodology in the latter half of the 19th century, and was an excellent logician.


C8847. Van Dover, J. K. "Huxley, Holmes, and the Scientific Detective," BSJ, 38, No. 4 (December 1988), 240-241.

Argues that Holmes may have been inspired in his youth by reading an 1863 pamphlet by T. H. Huxley on the practicality of the scientific method.


C8848. Van Dover, J. K. "The Lens and the Violin: Sherlock Holmes and the Rescue of Science," Clues, 9 (1988), 37-51 .

Doyle may have intended Holmes, in part, as a refutation of the popular figure of the mad scientist (Frankenstein, Jekyll). Holmes uses the scientific method for entirely moral purposes: to expose innocence and guilt. And his scientific clarity (the lens) is balanced by humane eccentricities (the violin).


C8849. Ward, Veronica, and John Orbell. "Sherlock Holmes as a Social Scientist," The Political Science Teacher (Fall 1988), 15-18.

----------. ----------, ST, No. 9 (October 1989).

A review, with examples, of Holmes's methods.


C8850. Weissmann, Gerald. "The Game Is Afoot, or Holmes and Watson at Bellevue," Discover, 7, No. 3 (March 1986), 14-16. illus. (Vital Signs)

----------. "The Game's Afoot at Bellevue," They All Laughed at Christopher Columbus: Tales of Medicine and the Art of Discovery. New York: Times Books, [1987]. p. 3-9.

"Medical students could learn about physical diagnosis from Sherlock Holmes as well as from their textbook."


C8851. Whitmer, M. "Method in His Ignorance," AC, No. 7 (February 1987), 3-4. (Thesis No. 8)

"Being a somewhat coherent observation on the infamous List of Holmes's Limits, drawn up by Watson in A Study in Scarlet."


C8852. [Whitten, Wilfred.] "Before Sherlock Holmes," Treasure Trove: Being Good Things Lost and Found. Collected by John O'London, [pseud.] London: George Newnes Ltd., [1925]. p. 64-68. (John O'London's Little Books)

A brief introduction to Holmes's method of detection by keen observation and swift deduction, followed by the classic story told by Voltaire in his Zadig.


C8853. Zauner, Phyllis. "Sherlock Holmes Started It All, But Now Crime Detection Is a Science in Its Own Right," The American Legion Magazine, 114, No. 2 (February 1983), 24-25, 62-63.

An article on forensic science with a tribute to Holmes, " ... one-man police force -- sleuth, investigator, master of a dozen forensic disciplines, a detective who could turn the most insignificant detail into solid evidence." The article also mentions that an enlarged picture of him hangs on the wall of the Forensic Services Bureau in Sacramento, Calif., and that his opinions are quoted in scientific publications like Earth Science.


 Knowledge of Acting and Disguises


C8854. -- A3022. Haynes, George C. "`What the Law Had Gained the Stage Had Lost,'" BSJ Christmas Annual, No. 5 (1960), 301-303.

A fourteen-year-old student of the Canon opens the "clues closet" to Holmes's former career as an actor.


C8855. -- A3023. Heldenbrand, Page. "Sherlock Holmes in Disguise," BSJ [OS], 1, No. 3 (July 1946), 318-322.

"Sherlock Holmes certainly did not miss his calling. As a detective he stands alone, but from our glimpses of `Sherlock Holmes in Disguise,' it is not unlikely that--as Athelney Jones put it--he would indeed `have made an actor and a rare one.'"


C8856. -- A3024. Kaye, Marvin. The Histrionic Holmes: An Analysis and Dissertation on the Impersonatory Genius of Sherlock Holmes. With technical notes and a compendium of his performances by Marvin Kaye. With illustrations by Tom Walker. [Culver City, Calif.: Luther Norris, November 1971.] 52 p.

Limited to 300 copies.

The first comprehensive study of one of the least explored areas of Sherlockian scholarship: the Master's skill as an actor and Napoleon of Disguise!


C8857. -- A3025. Kennedy, Bruce. "1899--Where Was Holmes?" BSP, No. 26 (August 1967), 4.

"William Gillette" was a pseudonym used by Holmes when he played the part in Sherlock Holmes.


C8858. -- A3026. Lauterbach, Charles E. "The Folks I Sometimes Meet," Baker Street Ballads. [Culver City, Calif.: Luther Norris, March 1971]. p. 30-31.

"Gadzounds! it's Sherlock in disguise!"


C8859. -- A3027. Rea, Roy. "Sherlock Holmes: Master Dramatist," BSJ, 4, No. 1 (January 1954), 5-11.

"Holmes is more than a great detective, and deserves some consideration for his theatrical abilities.... There are those who, with Vincent Starrett, would prefer a day with Mr. Holmes even to one with Master Shakespeare."


C8860. -- A3028. Skottowe, Philip F. "Sherlock Holmes and the Stage," SHJ, 7, No. 3 (Winter 1965), 73-77.

On the Master's dramatic impersonations and his earlier career as a competent and successful actor.


C8861. -- A3029. Solovay, Jacob C. "Watson Comments on Holmes's Acting," BSJ Christmas Annual, No. 5 (1960), 299.

"You change your person as you change your part. / Never a vestige of the amateur." (Watson)

"I could have rivalled Bernhardt, Mansfield, Irving-- / But what detective could have filled my place?" (Holmes)


C8862. -- A3030. Warrack, Guy. "Disguises in Baker Street," SHJ, 9, No. 3 (Winter 1969), 74-78.

An excellent treatment of Holmes's genius in the art of disguise. The disguises of a few other characters are also discussed.


C8863. -- A3031. Wilson, Alan. "Holmes the Histrionic," SHJ, 5, No. 4 (Summer 1962), 103-105.

An intriguing article in which the author refers to Sir Henry Irving and the Lyceum Theatre and to the possibility that Holmes might have been a minor member of his company.


C8864. -- B1389. Harrison, Michael. Theatrical Mr. Holmes. [Decorative drawing by Henry Lauritzen.] [London]: Covent Garden Press, [1974]. 19 p.

Limited to 750 copies, of which 100 are numbered and signed by the author.

"The world's greatest consulting detective, considered against the background of the contemporary theatre." (Subtitle)

Reviews: SHJ, 12, No. 1 (Spring 1975), 33 (James E. Holroyd); Sherlockiana, 19, Nr. 2-3 (1974).


C8865. -- B5960. Pollak, Marcia L. "The Adventure of the Theatrical Temptation," BSM, No. 16 (December 1978), 15-18.

----------. ----------, CN (NS), 2, No. 1 (March 1979), 2-6.

Examines the intriguing possibility that the Master Detective/Actor, not Gillette, may have portrayed himself in the three performances of Gillette's play in Buffalo during October 1899. Gillette then assumed the role when the drama moved elsewhere.


C8866. Andrews, Val. The Use of Disguise in Crime Detection. A monograph by Sherlock Holmes. Edited by Val Andrews. Introduction by Hugh Pentecost. [New York]: Magico Magazine, 1984. viii, 45 p.

Published in a trade edition and a limited edition of 121 numbered and signed copies.

Contents: Introduction by Hugh Pentecost. -- Preface. -- General Observations on the Use of Disguise by the Detective. -- The Detective's Make-Up Box: Materials Essential to Disguise, Plus General Observations on Facial Alteration. -- Accessories for Disguise. -- Characteristics. -- Speech and Dialect. -- From My Own Experience: Details of Some Disguises Adopted by Sherlock Holmes During the Course of His Work. -- A Few Concluding Observations. -- Epilogue.


C8867. Brodie, Robert N. "Holmes's Hideaways," SMuse, 10, No. 1 (Fall 1991), 11-15.

Speculation of Holmes's London refuges mentioned by Watson in Blac.


C8868. Campin, Desirée. "The Gentle Art of Disguise and Even Impersonation," CH, 8, No. 1 (Autumn 1984), 9-13.

A discussion of Holmes's ability as an actor and make-up artist.


C8869. Rodin, Alvin E., and Jack D. Key. Disguises in the Adventures of Sherlock Holmes: An Illustrated Analysis of Thirty Disguises from the Writings of Arthur Conan Doyle. Beavercreek, Ohio: KeyRod Literary Enterprises, 1987., ix, 51 p. illus.

"A centennial commemorative keepsake edition."

The disguises are categorized under headings of unsavory characters, occupation, age changes, sex changes, race changes, medical conditions and non-Canonical disguises. There are 25 full-page illustrations of the specific disguises.

Reviews: SHJ, 18, No. 3 (Winter 1987), 94 (Geoffrey S. Stavert); SHR, 1, Nos. 3-4 (1987), 111-112 (Steven T. Doyle).


 Knowledge of Advertising


See also Advertising and Advertisements

C8870. -- A3032. Cumings, Thayer. "Sherlock Holmes and Advertising," BSJ [OS], 1, No. 4 (October 1946), 385-390.

----------. ----------, The Best of the Pips. Westchester County, N.Y.: The Five Orange Pips, 1955. p. 79-86.

----------. ----------, Seven on Sherlock. [New York]: Privately Printed, 1968. p. 1-8.

"Unquestionably, Sherlock Holmes was advertising minded. One of the rituals he observed meticulously was a regular matinal perusal of the advertising columns."


C8871. -- A3033. Gilham, A. A. "Holmes in Advertising," SHJ, 6, No. 1 (Winter 1962), 18-19.

A consideration of his advertising ability and the part he is playing in the advertising world of today.


C8872. -- A3034. Lauritzen, Henry. "Sherlock Holmes ser paa annoncer" ["Sherlock Holmes Looks at Advertisements"], Stiftsnyt [Aalborg] (October 1960), 3-7.

----------. ----------, BSCL, No. 5 (1966), 19-24.


C8873. -- A3035. Lofstedt, Nelson G. "221b Madison Avenue," BSJ, 17, No. 4 (December 1967), 202-208.

"The most impressive thing about Holmes as an advertising man is his knowledge of so much of the field. He is well equipped to handle most of the key functions of an advertising agent--as copywriter, media adviser, production supervisor."


C8874. -- A3036. Ziebarth, E. W. "The Master and the Mass Media," Exploring Sherlock Holmes. Edited by E. W. McDiarmid & Theodore C. Blegen. La Crosse: Sumac Press, 1957. p. 42-65.

Examples of how he used advertising in his day and how the mass media use him in our day.


C8875. -- B1390. Brodie, Robert N. "The Agony Column: A Study of Advertising in the Canon," SHJ, 10, No. 4 (Summer 1972), 111-114.

"He was, on evidence, familiar with the important aspects of advertising. If the stage lost a great actor when he decided to become a consulting detective and the prize ring a notable performer, the advertising profession, too, must claim its loss. With his keen analytical mind, his passion for detail, his deductive skill and his clear, persuasive use of the language, he would have made his mark as one of the greatest advertising executives of all time."

Reviews: SHJ, 11, No. 1 (Winter 1972), 34-35 (Donald A. Redmond; Vernon Goslin).


C8876. -- B1391. Lofstedt, Nelson G. "221b Madison Avenue," The Fourth Cab. Boston: Stoke Moran Publishers, 1976. p. 39-45.

An examination of Holmes's skills as an advertising man, specifically in the areas of copy, media, and production. As a copywriter his work is shown to be crisp, concise, and, above all, result-getting. He also knows exactly where to place his ads in order to reach the proper audience. And he displays a keen knowledge of type faces and paper stocks. There is enough documentation to suggest that Baker Street was at times a turn-of-the-century Madison Avenue.

Reprinted from BSJ, December 1967 (DA3035).


C8877. -- B1392. Marshall, Donald W. "Baker Street and Madison Avenue," BSJ, 25, No. 4 (December 1975), 199-200.

Some hints of what the Canon would have been like if Watson had been familiar with television advertising: "Doesn't your hound deserve Basko? Basko is 100 percent human flesh, with not a speck of cereal." "Of all leading pain-relievers, only cocaine reaches the highest level of effectiveness in seconds. It is fast, fast, fast, and one thousand times stronger than aspirin. Try cocaine -- it brightens the brain as it blocks the pain. Use only as directed." Addendum to the ad in RedH: "Clairol users need not apply."


C8878. Harkison, Judy. "`A Chorus of Groans,' Notes Sherlock Holmes," Smithsonian, 18, No. 6 (September 1987), 196. illus.

Explores the history of the agony column, or "personals," and begins and ends with a quotation from the Canon.


C8879. Lauritzen, Henry. "Sherlock Holmes ser paa announcer," Sherlockiana, 34, Nr. 1 (1989), 5-6.

First published in Stiftsnyt, October 1960 (DA3034).


C8880. Winkworth, Stephen. Room Two More Guns: The Intriguing History of the Personal Column of The Times. London: George Allen & Unwin, [1986]. vii, 263 p.

Jacket illustration by Michael Ffolkes.

A fascinating study of the "agony column" from its origin in 1785 to the present day, with a chapter on the use of the personal column by Holmes.


 Knowledge of Anatomy


C8881. -- A3037. Fabricant, Noah D. "Sherlock Holmes as an Eye, Ear, Nose, and Throat Diagnostician," The Eye, Ear, Nose & Throat Monthly, 36, No. 9 (September 1957), 523-526.

An appraisal of his abilities in the field of the author's specialty, with a word on his knowledge of teeth.


C8882. -- A3038. Hart, Archibald. "The Effects of Trades Upon Hands," BSJ [OS], 3, No. 4 (October 1948), 418-420.

A brief commentary on Holmes's proficiency in deducing a person's trade from the characteristic marks his occupation has left on his hands.


C8883. -- A3040. Perlman, David. "Pitting a Famous Sleuth Against Heart Disease," San Francisco Chronicle (March 1, 1968), 4.

----------. ----------, CPBook, 4, No. 15 (August 1968), 283.

A report on how Dr. Mark C. Silverman is using Holmes's method of examining hands to detect heart disease.


C8884. -- A3041. Rouby, Jason. "On Identification by Comparison of Ears," BSJ, 15, No. 1 (March 1965), 26-27.

A discussion of the observation on the shapes of babies' ears and their alleged fathers as a contemporary method for deciding bastardy cases, by a former Arkansas county judge, using the same techniques employed by Holmes in Card.


C8885. -- A3042. Schenck, Remsen Ten Eyck. "The Effect of Trades Upon the Body," BSJ, 3, No. 1 (January 1953), 31-36.

An examination of occupational marks on teeth, hands, etc., including those of Holmes and Watson.


C8886. -- A3043. Van Liere, Edward J. "The Anatomical Sherlock Holmes," A Doctor Enjoys Sherlock Holmes. New York: Vantage Press, [1959]. p. 19-24.

The many pertinent allusions to anatomical science in the tales indicate that "Holmes was much more interested in gross structures of the body, especially osteology, than in microscopic structures."


C8887. -- B1386. "Trade-Marked Men -- How Various Occupations Leave Their Stamps," The Kansas City Star (September 22, 1930). illus.

"Every person, to the discerning, is branded in some manner by his job, and a cultivated power of deduction enables students of the present day to catalogue those they meet, much in the same manner as did our old friend, Sherlock Holmes."


 Knowledge of Anthropology and Archaeology


C8888. -- A3044. Boswell, Rolfe. "Skull-Diggery at Piltdown: A Baker Street Irregularity," BSJ, 13, No. 3 (September 1963), 150-155.

Clues in the Canon suggest the Master had a hand in the Piltdown forgery.


C8889. -- A3045. Compton, Carl B. "Sherlock Holmes, Archaeologist," Pennsylvania Archaeologist, 27 (December 1957), 138-140.

"Holmes was a forerunner of scientific detection and, in a way, of scientific archaeology."


C8890. -- A3046. Durrenberger, E. Paul. "More About Holmes and the Piltdown Problem," BSJ, 15, No. 1 (March 1965), 28-31.

After correcting some apparent misinterpretations by Rolfe Boswell, the author advances his own hypothesis that Holmes discovered Charles Dawson's Piltdown man was a fake and reported his findings to the Royal Anthropological Institute.


C8891. -- A3047. Eney, Dick. "Fundamental, My Dear Watson," Spy Ray, Operation Crifanac 229 (July 1963), 1-4.

----------, ----------, Shsf Fanthology One. Edited by Ruth Berman. The Professor Challenger Society, 1967. p. 21-26.

Holmes subscribed in large part to the theory of Criminal Anthropology and either derived his theories of criminology from the writings of Lombroso or developed them independently.


C8892. -- A3048. Krogman, Wilton Marion. "Sherlock Holmes as an Anthropologist," The Scientific Monthly, 80, No. 3 (March 1955), 155-162.

----------. ----------, CPBook, 2, Nos. 7-8 (Winter-Spring 1966), 149-156.

"Among the fields in which he showed considerable knowledge was anthropology. Primarily, his interests were concerned with what we today classify as physical anthropology, but he knew archaeology and ethnography as well."


C8893. -- B1393. Anderson, Poul and Karen. "The Archaeological Holmes," BSJ, 22, No. 1 (March 1972), 4-9.

The Canon quotes Holmes as believing he can trace Chaldean roots in the Cornish language. This is absurd on both linguistic and historical grounds, as the Master must have become aware as soon as he began serious study of the subject. However, excavation had already begun to reveal the existence of a great Bronze Age empire based on Crete, whose traders, missionaries, and technicians may well have influenced Cornish speech. Thus, while Holmes may have mentioned Chaldean roots at first, what he said later was probably "Cretan roots," and Watson misheard. "Not only did the stage lose a great actor when he became a detective, science lost a great archaeologist."


C8894. Kawasaki, Tamotsu. "The Excavation of `The Devil's Foot,'" SNSHC, 3, No. 1 (May 4, 1992), 20-30.

Text in Japanese.

"Sherlock Holmes's interest in and knowledge of archaeology are most clearly demonstrated in `The Adventure of the Devil's Foot.' It is also to be seen that his interest does not lie in archaeology in its narrow sense but in Altertumskunde, or the integral study of ancient times."


 Knowledge of Architecture


C8895. Thomalen, Robert E. "Queen Anne? Or Georgian?" PP, 4, No. 3 (September 1982), 32-35.

Holmes's question about the style of Nathan Garrideb's house may indicate that he was exhibiting a superior knowledge of architecture.


 Knowledge of Astronomy


C8896. Blau, Peter E. "What the deuce is it to me?" Washington, D.C.: The Spermaceti Press, 1980. [4] p.

"Published for the Annual Dinner of The Baker Street Irregulars, January 11th, 1980."

A commentary on the lunar crater Sherlock, now an official name; the exhibit on Exploring the Planets at the National Air and Space Museum, featuring Holmes and Watson; and Holmes's knowledge of astronomy. Illustrated with a Paget drawing from Silv and a quotation from Stud.


C8897. Goldfarb, Clifford S. "Sherlock Holmes -- Amateur Astronomer," BSJ, 29, No. 4 (December 1979), 215-217.

Proof is presented that, despite contrary categorical statements in Stud, Holmes was an amateur astronomer, familiar enough with the subject to borrow his famous maxim "...when you have eliminated the impossible, ... etc.," from an 1803 paper by Antoine de Fourcroy on the origin of meteorites.


C8898. [Saito, Kuniji. Sherlock Holmes and Astronomy: A Walk Through the Old Astronomy. Tokyo: Koseisha Koseikaku Pub. Co., 1992.] 190 p.

Disproof of the description that Holmes had no knowledge of astronomy.


 Knowledge of Bertillonage


C8899. Brell, Joe. "Green with Envy," SP, 3, No. 2 (January 1981), 6-7.

Holmes was jealous of Alphonse Bertillon!


C8900. Gallipoli, Vincent A. "Sherlock Holmes and Bertillon," FTM, No. 4 (December 1979), [unpaged].

A brief commentary about the French criminologist and the Master's knowledge of Bertillon's system.


C8901. Skornickel, George R., Jr. "Alphonse Bertillon -- The Highest Expert in Europe," SP, 3, No. 1 (October 1980), 6-13.

A brief biography of the man who, in the opinion of many, including Dr. James Mortimer, stood above even the great Sherlock Holmes as "the highest expert in Europe."


C8902. Varrelman, Dave. "`I Am the Last and Highest Court of Appeal in Detection' (Stud)," TW, 5, No. 1 (1983), 1-9.

Another biography of Bertillon and confirmation of Dr. Mortimer's statement (Houn) that Holmes was "the second highest expert in Europe" -- the first was Bertillon, whose contributions to the scientific detection of criminals were unmatched.


 Knowledge of British Law


(Including his Legal Transgressions)


See also Blue, Chas, Prio, and Silv


C8903. -- A3049. Beckemeyer, Doyle W. "The Irregular Holmes," BSJ, 2, No. 1 (January 1952), 18-20.

"It was undoubtedly Scotland Yard's restraints and lackadaisical methods that led Holmes to feel justified in putting his knowledge of housebreaking and burglary, however irregular it might be, to practical use in his own capacity as a private detective."


C8904. -- A3050. Bigelow, S. Tupper. "Misprision of Felony and Sherlock Holmes," SHJ, 5, No. 3 (Winter 1961), 68-70.

A vindication of the "totally unjustified charges" made against Holmes by the author in the following article.


C8905. -- A3051. Bigelow, S. Tupper. "Sherlock Holmes and Misprision of Felony," BSJ, 8, No. 3 (July 1958), 139-146.

Judge Bigelow accuses him of having committed the heinous offense of misprision of felony no less than seventeen times in twelve of his cases.


C8906. -- A3052. Bigelow, S. Tupper. "Sherlock Holmes Was No Burglar," BSJ Christmas Annual, No. 3 (1958), 26-37.

A defense of Holmes's and Watson's burglarious activities.


C8907. -- A3053. Blaustein, Albert P. "Sherlock Holmes: Was Conan Doyle's Famed Detective a Lawyer?" American Bar Association Journal, 34, No. 6 (June 1948), 473-474.

----------. "Sherlock Holmes as a Lawyer," BSJ [OS], 3, No. 3 (July 1948), 306-308.

A portrait of him as a lawyer, judge, and legal philosopher.


C8908. -- A3054. Fenton, Irving. "Holmes and the Law," BSJ, 7, No. 2 (April 1957), 79-83.

"In general, Holmes exhibits no greater knowledge of the British law than does the intelligent layman who reads The Times of London and the crime literature of the day."


C8909. -- A3055. Harbottle, S. T. L. "Sherlock Holmes and the Law," SHJ, 1, No. 3 (June 1953), 7-10.

An examination of the gaps in his knowledge of British criminal law.


C8910. -- A3056. H [Holmgren], R. B. "Sherlock Holmes and Justice," DCC, 2, No. 5 (July 1966), 2.

A brief appraisal of his actions against the perspective of British police traditions.


C8911. -- A3057. Honce, Charles. "Was Holmes a Crook?" For Loving a Book. Mount Vernon, N.Y.: The Golden Eagle Press, 1945. p. 51-52.

A short piece in which are quoted a letter from Jacob Blanck and a reply from Edgar Smith theorizing about his criminal and American background.


C8912. -- A3058. Jensen, Jens. "Sherlock Holmes og retfaerdigheden" ["Sherlock Holmes and Justice"], Sherlockiana, 6, Nr. 2-3 (1961), 8-10.

A justification of his decisions on cases that did not go through the ordinary legal channels, and his assumption of this role.


C8913. -- A3059. Johnson, Frederic A. "Sherlock Holmes, the Criminal?" BSJ, 10, No. 3 (July 1960), 172-174.

"Whatever the circumstance, Sherlock Holmes adhered firmly to the accredited policies of law enforcement and to the eternal triumph of righteousness."


C8914. -- A3060. Levy, Mark. "On the Morality of One Mr. Sherlock Holmes," BSJ, 21, No. 1 (March 1971), 40-43.

He could easily have been a master criminal but refrained from engaging in a life of crime, proving that he was moral.


C8915. -- A3061. Mallalieu, J. P. W. "Shady Mr. Holmes," The Spectator, 190 (February 27, 1953), 247.

----------. ----------, CPBook, 2, No. 5-6 (Summer-Fall 1965), 89.

A corroboration of Red Smith's indictment of Holmes and Watson for their alleged illegal sporting activities.


C8916. -- A3062. Page, Andrew. "On the Reasoning of One Mark Levy: A Rebuttal on the `Morality' of Sherlock Holmes," HO, 1, No. 3 (May 1971), 5-7.


C8917. -- A3063. Palmer, Stephen G. "Sherlock Holmes and the Law," Sherlock Holmes: Master Detective. Edited by Theodore C. Blegen & E. W. McDiarmid. La Crosse: Printed for the Norwegian Explorers, St. Paul & Minneapolis, 1952. p. 36-44.

The author reviews and answers Blaustein's arguments, and then provides his own argument to prove that "Holmes was not a legal man by training, and further, that he had very little regard for the law except when it suited his own purposes."


C8918. -- A3064. Smith, Red. "The Nefarious Holmes," and "Dear Me Mr. Holmes," New York Herald Tribune (January 13, 1953), 24; (January 14, 1953), 26. (Views of Sport)

----------. ----------, Views of Sport. Illustrations by Marc Simont. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1954. p. 185-191.

----------. ----------, CPBook, 1, No. 1 (Summer 1964), 10-11.


C8919. -- A3065. Smith, Red. "What! Sherlock Holmes a Crook?" The Sign: A National Catholic Monthly Magazine, 43, No. 1 (August 1963), 54-55.

Evidence of his willingness to use inside information to his own advantage in connection with sporting events.


C8920. -- A3066. Stix, Thomas L. "Sherlock Holmes Impeached. I.," BSJ, 15, No. 2 (June 1965), 75-76.

"Through bribery, suppressio veri, suggestio falsi, burglary, helping murderers to escape, commuting a felony, withholding information which kept an innocent man in duress (more or less vile), by encouraging the rich and subjugating the poor, by bluff, by subterfuge, by rigged gambling, by disguise, by laziness, this opium-drugged anti-Robin Hood has much to answer for."


C8921. -- B1394. Fusco, Andrew G. "The Case Against Mr. Holmes," Beyond Baker Street: A Sherlockian Anthology. Edited and annotated by Michael Harrison. Indianapolis/New York: The Bobbs-Merrill Co., [1976]. p. 95-108.

In this article Fusco, a practicing attorney, has attempted to evaluate Holmes's legal knowledge and the extent of his formal legal training, if any. By studying and analyzing numerous specific incidents in the Canon, in light of the detective's general attitudes and inclinations as exhibited throughout his adventures, the author determines that Holmes had no special legal knowledge or training. In refuting many previous theories, Fusco has presented the most complete study to date of Sherlock Holmes and the law.


C8922. -- B1395. Galerstein, David. "`I Have the Right to Private Judgment,'" BSJ, 14, No. 3 (September 1974), 168-173.

Justice, Sherlock Holmes style, depended upon your class status and income. The Master's actions are compared in cases where similar crimes were committed by the wealthy, the highborn, and the poor. It is shown that in every case Holmes sympathized with and covered up for the criminals whose social and/or economic station was high while he committed the poor and lowborn to prison.


C8923. -- B1396. Wigglesworth, Belden. "The Amoral Mr. Holmes," BSJ, 22, No. 2 (June 1972), 107-111.

----------. ----------, Canon Fodder. Charles O. Gray, editor. Little Rock: The Arkansas Valley Investors, Ltd., 1976. p. 101-107.

The author comments on the numerous clients whose lives were jeopardized by Holmes's "mistaken foresight." In contrast to the dangers to which the detective's clients were subjected, there were many instances in which felons were provided with a safe, untrammelled future, thanks to Holmes's amoral attitudes.


C8924. Chambers, Patrick T. "Sherlock Holmes: Witness for the Prosecution," WW, 6, No. 1 (May 1983), 24-29.

"Lack of specific instances of Holmes's participation in the trials that followed his investigations is one of Watson's regrettable omissions. That Holmes was instrumental in such trials and possessed a grasp and acute awareness of British criminal law cannot be seriously doubted ... "


C8925. Court, Richard F. "Sherlock Holmes -- Master Criminal," Calabash, No. 2 (September 1982), 21-25.

The author, as a self-appointed representative of Her Majesty's Government, charges the defendant, Sherlock Holmes, with the following crimes: 1. Trespass quare clausem freqit (Spec, Scan); 2. Corruption of an officer of the law (Stud); 3. Participation in illegal prize fighting (Sign); 4. Assault by Verbal Threat (Iden); 5. Withholding evidence of a misdemeanour -- 2 counts (Blue, Silv); 6. Assault and battery (Sign); 7. Carrying a concealed weapon (Sign, Houn); 8. Burglary (Chas); 9. Arson (Scan); 10. withholding evidence of murder, thereby making himself an accessory after the fact to same (Bosc); and 11. Murder in the First Degree (Spec).

"In summation, we have shown that Holmes's much vaunted methods include a disregard of the law. The arch fiend Moriarty is often said to have been patterned after Nietzsche. It is my contention that the Übermensch Philosophy applies equally well to Holmes, who combined his many qualifications with that Philosophy to create Sherlock Holmes, Master Criminal."


C8926. Olding, Alan C. "Sherlock Holmes -- Lawbreaker?" NFTD, 10, No. 3 (September 1989), 1-4.

Quotes the opinions of past Commissioners of Police Sir Robert Mark and Sir Kenneth Newman, Alphonse Bertillon, and Emile Locard on Holmes's achievements. The article then describes his felonious acts in pursuit of evidence, and concludes that "The Yard" must have been prepared to turn a blind eye so long as Holmes was rendering assistance to the regular force. However, it asks whether someone from Scotland Yard interviewed Holmes and Watson after the publication in the Strand of Chas, which indicated knowledge of the murderer of Milverton.


C8927. Otten, Eric. "Sherlock Holmes, Scoundrel!" CNFB, No. 2 (November 1983), 5-6.

Holmes is revealed as a "blackmailer and extortionist" by the author who has learned to recognize "a Holmes ... by its brush strokes."


C8928. Quinn, Elizabeth. "Above and Beyond the Law: The Questionable Methods of Sherlock Holmes," DC, 6, No. 1 (January 1993), 1-7.

"Comments on `crimes' committed by Sherlock Holmes, and often, abetted by Dr. Watson."


C8929. Warrington, David. "Sherlock Holmes and the Law," Harvard Law Bulletin (Autumn 1988), 24.

----------. ----------, APD (October-November 1988), 10.

----------. ----------, LCH (July-December 1988), 9.

An essay that introduces the exhibit "Sherlock Holmes and the Law," a display of works on law and crime that Holmes might have read and owned.


C8930. Worden, Barbara Stanley. "Sherlock Holmes and Nathan the Prophet: A Study in Analogies," BSJ, 29, No. 2 (June 1979), 99-104.

Holmes and Nathan, the Old Testament prophet, share three major functions in their roles of enforcing justice. These are alienation from a corrupt establishment, and a consequent ability to bring to justice the powerful who feel themselves to be above the law. Thirdly, and most importantly, their justice is often extralegal or supernatural in nature.


 Knowledge of Business


C8931. -- B1397. Foss, Thomas Frederick. "You Know My Methods, Watson," BSJ, 26, No. 3 (September 1976), 163-165.

A lighthearted attack on the un-business like way Holmes conducted his affairs. The article is in the form of a touting, unsolicited letter which promises the detective that his business will be even more successful if he would employ the services of "Better Business Ltd."


C8932. -- B1398. Hubbs, Ronald M. "Holmes: The Potential Entrepreneur," Cultivating Sherlock Holmes. Edited by Bryce L. Crawford, Jr., and Joseph B. Connors. La Crosse, Wis.: Published by the Sumac Press for the Norwegian Explorers of Minnesota, 1978. p. 31-38.

Sherlock Holmes is best known as the master detective. But did he have the makings of a master businessman as well? "Holmes had all the attributes to be a business success. He was a latent, potential entrepreneur and may have regretted not making it a career instead of brief encounters with it. He would have discovered not only that the `game's afoot,' but that game was the thing!"


 Knowledge of Chemistry


C8933. -- A3067. Clark, John D. "A Chemist's View of Canonical Chemistry," BSJ, 14, No. 3 (September 1964), 153-155.

"Holmes was a distinguished forensic chemist. But it is only fair to remind the world that as a chemist he was something more. From Baker Street to the Ecole Polytechnique to the Rutherford Laboratories at Cambridge, and on to Alamogordo--the trace is there for anyone to see."


C8934. -- A3068. Doll, Bernard L. "Sherlock Holmes, the Chemist," Illustrious Client's Case-Book. Edited by J. N. Williamson and H. B. Williams. [Indianapolis, Ind.: The Illustrious Clients, 1948.] p. 48-49.

"If Sherlock had not decided to become the world's only unofficial consulting detective, he would most probably have turned to chemistry as the means of earning his bread and cheese."


C8935. -- A3069. Glock, M. F. V. "The Chemist Holmes," Investigations, 1, No. 3 (May 1971), 4-6.


C8936. -- A3070. Graham, R. P. "Sherlock Holmes: Analytical Chemist," Journal of Chemical Education, 22, No. 10 (October 1945), 508-510.

"Holmes chemical interests ... were largely centered in the organic branch of chemistry. His forte was analytical organic chemistry."


C8937. -- A3071. Holstein, Leon S. "`7. Knowledge of Chemistry -- Profound,'" BSJ, 4, No. 1 (January 1954), 44-49.

"`Knowledge of Chemistry -- Profound' [the seventh of the Master's `limits' as defined by Watson in his famous list] is an appraisal that stands the test of time, and it is as true on January 6, 1954, as it was in March of 1882."


C8938. -- A3072. Michell, J. H. and Humfrey. "Sherlock Holmes the Chemist," BSJ [OS], 1, No. 3 (July 1946), 245-252.

Discusses several areas of his life but emphasizes his chemical experiments and research in coal-tar derivatives.


C8939. -- A3073. Price, A. Whigham. "Holmes and Chemistry," BSJ, 3, No. 1 (January 1953), 20-24.

To cover the alarming facts unearthed by Schenck in "Baker Street Fables" (DA3015), the author advances the theory that Watson may have tried to discredit Holmes in a mild sort of way by recording some minor inaccuracies his companion uttered about chemistry.


C8940. -- A3074. Redmond, Donald A. "Some Chemical Problems in the Canon," BSJ, 14, No. 3 (September 1964), 145-152.

A detailed and fully documented study of the subject, under the headings: 1. The Acetones. 2. The Test for Haemoglobin. 3. The Deal-Topped Table. 4. The Bunsen Burner. 5. The Bisulphate of Baryta. 6. The Blue Carbuncle.


C8941. -- A3075. Schenck, Remsen T. "Knowledge of Chemistry -- Not So Profound," BSJ, 4, No. 4 (October 1954), 229-231.

A disputation of Holstein's endeavour to establish that Holmes was a competent chemist.


C8942. -- A3076. Van Liere, Edward J. "Sherlock Holmes, the Chemist," A Doctor Enjoys Sherlock Holmes. New York: Vantage Press [1959]. p. 69-76.

"The casual reader naturally takes it for granted that Holmes's love for chemistry was due to his interest in crime detection; that is, he intended to use the knowledge he gained from his experiments for practical purposes. We recognize this today as applied research.... Holmes was interested in pure or basic research, too--in other words, research which has no immediate practical value."


C8943. -- B1399. Blackburn, Julian. "A Note on Sherlock Holmes and Radioactivity," BSJ, 23, No. 1 (March 1973), 32-33.

It is suggested that during his work on coal-tar derivatives he stumbled upon induced radioactivity and passed the information on to Roentgen who reported his discovery of X-rays in 1895. Holmes returned to his laboratory in Montpellier in 1895, concentrated on natural radioactivity, and identified uranium radiation with X-rays. He informed Becquerel who, in turn, discussed the matter with the Curies. Thus, Holmes ought to have qualified for a share in the first Nobel Prize in Physics awarded to Roentgen in 1901, and also for a share of the 1903 Nobel Prize awarded to Becquerel and the Curies.


C8944. -- B1400. Butler, Anthony R. "Sherlock Holmes as a Chemist," SHJ, 12, No. 3-4 (Summer 1976), 81-82.

"Had Watson been a better chemist, the Canon would be of greater interest to the chemical profession and Holmes's contribution to the progress of chemistry would be known."


C8945. -- B1401. Cooper, Peter. "Holmesian Chemistry," Beyond Baker Street: A Sherlockian Anthology. Edited and annotated by Michael Harrison. Indianapolis/New York: The Bobbs-Merrill Co., [1976]. p. 67-73.

A professional chemist examines not only Holmes's chemical knowledge, but also the attacks upon it, and reaches the conclusion that he was a farsighted but frustrated chemist, limited by the laboratory conventions of his day.


C8946. -- B1402. Dence, Joseph B. "The State of Chemistry in Holmes's Day," BSJ, 25, No. 4 (December 1975), 212-215.

How lucky Holmes the chemist was to have lived during the intellectually stimulating period of 1840-1865 when the very foundations of his science were being debated by its leading thinkers! Holmes undoubtedly knew the German masters through their writings, and he may have come under the influence of the British chemist Edward Frankland, who taught for a while at St. Bartholomew's Hospital. Practical developments in chemistry, such as improvements in analysis, and the discovery and investigation of various naturally-occurring substances like cocaine and other alkaloids, must have benefited Holmes in his unique profession.


C8947. -- B1403. Ellison, Charles O. "The Chemical Corner," Sherlock Holmes and His Creator, [by] Trevor H. Hall. New York: St. Martin's Press, [1977]. p. 30-38.

"His chemical experiments were designed neither to advance the sum of human knowledge, nor his own career. They were purely a solace to his spirit.... Two subsidiary purposes, perhaps, also came to be served by the chemical corner. It helped to mystify Watson ... and to instill confidence into the mind of the client as he or she gazed nervously around the Baker Street sitting-room. ... The barest minimum of equipment would suffice to set the scene for the casual visitor, who, for his part, would be unlikely to notice that its deficiencies were such as to render the performance of serious chemical work impracticable, if not impossible."


C8948. -- B1404. Gillard, R. D. "Sherlock Holmes -- Chemist," Chemistry Newsletter [Science, Mathematics and Technology Centre, University College, Cardiff, Wales], No. 11 (July 1975), 9-12.

----------. ----------, [Revised] Education in Chemistry, 13, No. 1 (January 1976), 10-11. illus.

With a cover design of a retort and Holmes inside an Erlenmeyer flask, by Alison Heathorn.

Attention is given to Holmes's methods of working, to the apparatus employed, to his chemical work, and to two particular pieces of chemical research; namely, the test for blood, and his experiments with bisulphate of baryta. Some comments are made on this chemistry, and the conclusion is drawn that Holmes was a well-informed, up-to-date practitioner. The article is heavily footnoted and based entirely on evidence collected from the Canon.


C8949. -- B5961. Karlson, Katherine. "Promise Her Anything, But Give Her Bisulfate of Baryta; or Sherlock Holmes, Parfumeur," BSJ, 28, No. 4 (December 1978), 218-219.

Comments on the chemical and psychological aspects of perfumes, which Holmes recognized as useful in his unique form of detection.

See also DB1509.


C8950. -- B1405. Moss, Robert A. "`Knowledge of Chemistry -- Profound,'" BSJ, 25, No. 4 (December 1975), 216-217, 240.

Holmes's early support of the controversial van't Hoff and Le Bel stereochemical theories (1874) led to his transfer from St. Bartholomew's Laboratories to Cambridge. Here, too, his outspoken support of the new theories engendered conflict with the organic chemistry faculty, causing him to withdraw without a degree. Upon learning of these events, Watson modified his original appraisal of Holmes's chemical knowledge from "profound" (1881) to "eccentric" (1887).


C8951. -- B5962. Walters, Lee R. "The Hydrocarbon Puzzle," BSJ, 28, No. 4 (December 1978), 222-223.

Holmes has dissolved a hydrocarbon (Sign). This sounds like a simple problem, but the author assumes that the hydrocarbon is carbazole newly isolated from coal tar. This compound dissolves in a new solvent system, concentrated sulfuric acid.


C8952. Ahlquist, David A., Virgil F. Fairbanks, and Ralph D. Ellefson. "Hemo-Quant Test for Occult Blood: The Sherlock Holmes Test?" Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 59, No. 11 (November 1984), 766-768.

----------. ----------, Mayo Medical Laboratories Communique, 12, No. 2 (February 1987), 2-5. illus.

The passage from Stud is used to introduce a test, newly perfected, that does measure "Haemoglobin and ... nothing else" with great sensitivity.


C8953. Aldrich, Frederick A. "Holmes's Litmus Test," CH, 9, No. 4 (Summer 1986), 14-15.

A discussion of litmus as used by Holmes in Nava.


C8954. Asimov, Isaac. "The Problem of the Blundering Chemist," Science Digest, 88, No. 2 (August 1980), 8-17. illus.

----------. ----------, MB, 8, No. 1 (Spring 1982), 5-13.

----------. "Sherlock Holmes as Chemist," The Roving Mind, [by] Isaac Asimov. Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, [1983]. p. 127-132.

The author analyzes Doyle's science as employed in the sixty adventures, and concludes that "even in chemistry -- where Sherlock Holmes's knowledge was described as `profound' -- the Master Detective managed to leave an amateur's thumbprints all over a dozen of his principal cases."

Illustrated with a reproduction of Gahan Wilson's interpretation of "Asimov-haunted-by-Holmes (DB1942), and a cover photograph (Science Digest) of the author wearing a deerstalker.

Review: Afghanistanzas, 5, No. 2 (December 8, 1980), 3-5 (Jim Healy).


C8955. Burr, Robert C. "`Knowledge of Chemistry -- Profound'?" WW, 8, No. 1 (May 1985), 14-16.

The author questions Watson's use of the word "profound" to describe Holmes's chemical knowledge because Holmes was totally unaware of an amazing property of litmus paper other than its ability to detect the presence of acids and bases.


C8956. Dalton, J. "What Is a Clinical Chemistry Laboratory?" Manitoba Medicine, 60, No. 3 (Fall 1990), 99-100. illus.

----------. ----------, BC, 8, No. 4 (May 1991), 12-14.

"Clinical chemistry has come a long way since Holmes discovered his test for haemoglobin. The number and scope of analyses performed has increased dramatically in the last 80 years, as has technology in other fields of medicine, and they show no sign of slowing up."


C8957. Dickson, Stewart. "Sherlock Holmes Found a Cancer Agent 40 Years Before Scientists," Globe (December 22, 1981), 4.

----------. ----------, BSC, 2, No. 1 (January-February 1982), 13.

----------. ----------, CPBook, 5, No. 2 (June 1982), 452.


C8958. Dinegar, Robert H. "Sherlock Holmes: Scientist and Chemist," SHJ, 19, No. 1 (Winter 1988), 16-19.

A review of Holmes as a scientist and chemist. "[He] used chemistry and chemical techniques to the fullest. In fact, it is hard to specify another branch of physical science he used more often, more fully, or more successfully."


C8959. Frick, Willis G. "The Deal-Topped Table," SM, 10, No. 4 (1986), 9-11.

Speculates on Holmes's chemical equipment and apparatus and the types of experiments he conducted on the deal-topped table in his chemical corner.


C8960. Gerber, Samuel M., ed., Chemistry and Crime: From Sherlock Holmes to Today's Courtroom. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society, 1983. xiii, 135 p. illus.

Book and jacket design and illustrations by Anne G. Bigler.

Partial contents: Chap. 1. Medical School Influences on the Fiction of Arthur Conan Doyle, by Ely M. Liebow. -- Chap. 3. A Study in Scarlet: Blood Identification in 1875, by Samuel M. Gerber.

Reviews: Boca Raton News (May 14, 1983), and reprinted in CPBook, 7, Nos. 1-2 (March-June 1984), 666; Chemical & Engineering News, 62 (March 19, 1984), 97-98 (John W. Hicks).


C8961. Graham, R. P. "Sherlock Holmes: Analytical Chemist," Exposition: Technical & Popular. Edited by Jay Reid Gould and Sterling P. Olmsted. New York: Longmans, Green and Co., 1947. p. 92-97.

First published in Journal of Chemical Education, October 1945 (DA3070).


C8962. Haskett, Louise. "The Chemistry of Sherlock Holmes," Illustrious Client's Case-Notes. Edited by Brian R. MacDonald. Indianapolis: The Illustrious Clients, 1983. p. 50-57.

An in-depth study of the associations between Holmes and chemistry and forensic science.


C8963. Inman, Charles G. "Sherlockian Distillates," Journal of Chemical Education, 64, No. 12 (December 1987), 1014-1015.

The chemical investigations being conducted by the murdered Bartholomew Sholto (Sign) could not have failed to interest Holmes. From Watson's description of Sholto's laboratory and his references to subsequent chemical experiments of Holmes's, it can be shown that this study was continued by Holmes. Holmes completed the synthesis of a new acenaphthene-based dye at Montpellier, anticipating Grob's 1907 preparation of this violet colorant by about fourteen years.


C8964. McGowan, Raymond J. "The Holmes Test for Haemoglobin," SM, 10, No. 4 (1986), 17-19.

Among the several known tests for haemoglobin between 1853 and 1872, the one that corresponds most closely to the description of Holmes's test is the Sonnenschein Test (1872). It is very likely that the reaction of the Sherlock Holmes Test was based on Doyle's knowledge of the Sonnenschein Test.


C8965. McGowan, Raymond J. "Sherlock Holmes and Forensic Chemistry," BSJ, 37, No. 1 (March 1987), 10-14.

"This study has demonstrated that Sherlock Holmes's knowledge of forensic chemistry excelled that of the majority (nine out of eleven) of the scientists involved in the search for a forensic method for the detection of blood. His knowledge of forensic chemistry was manifested in the fact that he formulated a test for blood that was based on the chemical composition of blood. The experimental portion of this study demonstrated that Holmes was cognizant of the complexity of the oxidation-reduction reaction. Therefore, he utilized this reaction to precipitate the iron from the haemoglobin in his test for blood. In summary, we have confirmed the fact that, as Watson noted in A Study in Scarlet, Sherlock Holmes had a profound knowledge of chemistry."

Illustrated with a photograph of the author's "Baker Street Lab."


C8966. Moss, Robert A. "A Research Into the Coal-Tar Derivatives," BSJ, 32, No. 1 (March 1982), 40-42.

Holmes's interest in organic chemistry, coupled with his concern for the relation between a person's occupation and appearance, led him to isolate carcinogenic constituents of coal tar. This work was carried out during 1893-1894, when he "spent some months in a research into the coal-tar derivatives ... conducted in a laboratory at Montpellier..."(Empt).


C8967. Rae, Ian D. "Dustcoats in Dustjackets," Chemistry in Britain, 19, No. 7 (July 1983), 565-569. illus.

How chemists and chemistry fare at the hands of fiction writers, including Doyle. Illustrated with a Paget drawing from Nava showing Holmes seated before his chemical table.


C8968. Raeburn, Paul. "Holmes `Discovered' Cancer-Causing Agent," The Tampa Tribune (August 26, 1981), 8-A.

----------. "Sherlock Also Super Chemist?" The Home News [New Brunswick, N.J.] (August 26, 1981).

----------. "Sherlock Holmes May Have Smoked Out Cancer-Causing Chemical," Albuquerque Journal (August 27, 1981), C-2.

----------. "It's Elementary -- Sherlock `Turned' a Key to Cancer," Chicago Sun-Times (August 27, 1981).

----------. ----------, SHJ, 15, No. 3 (Winter 1981), 87.

----------. ----------, CPBook, 5, No. 2 (June 1982), 451.

----------. "Sherlock Holmes May Have Been in the Forefront of Cancer Research," St. Pete Times (August 30, 1981).

----------. ----------, PPofFC, No. 57 (October 7, 1981), 4.

----------. ----------, BSR, 5, Nos. 13-14 (October-November 1981), 7.

According to Robert Moss, a Rutgers University professor and BSI, Holmes may have discovered a cancer-causing chemical decades before it was reported in scientific journals. Moss said at a meeting of the American Chemical Society that Holmes isolated the chemical 3, 4 benzpyrene in 1893 after spending "some months in research into the coal-tar derivatives ... conducted in a laboratory at Montpellier, in the south of France."


C8969. Spa, Hans A. "Kennis der scheikunde -- grondig!" ["Knowledge of Chemistry -- Profound!"] GJ (May 1981), 4-8; (June 1981), 4-7. illus.


C8970. Walters, Lee R. "The Great Experiment," BSJ, 38, No. 2 (June 1988), 94-95.

Sherlock Holmes is engaged in an experiment which he states "... means a man's life" (Nava). -- He is trying to identify a drug or poisonous substance using his knowledge of organic chemistry. At the conclusion of the experiment the evidence points to cocaine as the most likely poison.


 Knowledge of Conjuring


C8971. Elliott, Doug. "Sherlock Holmes as Conjurer!" Illustration by Scott Bond. CH, 6, No. 2 (Winter 1982), 3-9.

The author shows that Holmes was adept in the art of conjuring, and that two of the greatest magicians of the London stage, John Nevil Maskelyne and Dr. Lynn, were his tutors.

Winner of the Mostly Mysteries Award for the best paper in CH during 1982.


 Knowledge of Counselling


C8972. Blomquist, Robert F. "Holmes the Counsellor," BSM, No. 27 (Autumn 1981), 25-30.

An overview of the counselling process, followed by examples of Holmes's counselling techniques that were developed early in his career and refined over a period of some twenty-three years.


 Knowledge of Cryptography


See also Danc, Miss, and RedC.


C8973. -- A3077. Schorin, Howard R. "Cryptography in the Canon," BSJ, 13, No. 4 (December 1963), 214-216.

A critical analysis of the cryptographic messages used in Glor, Danc, Vall, and RedC.


C8974. -- A3078. Shulman, David. "Sherlock Holmes: Cryptanalyst," BSJ [OS], 3, No. 2 (April 1948), 233-237.

Evidence of his outstanding ability as a cipher expert.


C8975. -- B1406. [Bowers, W. M.] "Sherlock Holmes -- Cryptanalyst," by Zembie [pseud.] The Cryptogram (November-December 1968), 148.


C8976. -- B1407. Shulman, David. "Sherlock Holmes: Cryptanalyst," HP, 1, No. 6 (August 1977), 16-20.

Reprinted from BSJ [OS], April 1948 (DA3078).


 Knowledge of Dermatology


C8977. -- A3039. Klauder, Joseph V. "Sherlock Holmes as a Dermatologist: With Remarks on the Life of Dr. Joseph Bell and the Sherlockian Method of Teaching," A.M.A. Archives of Dermatology and Syphilogy, 68, No. 4 (October 1953), 363-377.

----------. Revised with title: "Sherlock Holmes and Dermatology," Skin: Dermatology in General Practice, 1, No. 2 (March 1962), 45-54.

----------. ----------, CPBook, 2, Nos. 7-8 (Winter-Spring, 1966), 131-140.

The late Clinical Professor of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, reports on a dermatological clinic as it might have been conducted by Holmes.


C8978. -- B1408. Leider, Morris, and Morris Rosenblum. A Dictionary of Dermatogical Words, Terms and Phrases. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., [1968]. xi, 440 p.

Under "faces Hippocratica" (p. 169-170) there is a discussion of Canonical allusions to the expression on the face after death.


C8979. -- B1409. Smith, Edgar B., and Herman Beerman. "Sherlock Holmes and Dermatology," International Journal of Dermatology, 16, No. 5 (June 1977), 433-438.

"There is much material in the Holmes stories as reported by Drs. Doyle and Watson, and Holmes himself, which relates to the skin. The study of this material is a delightful hobby for the dermatologist and a stimulus to continually develop the ability to observe accurately and think logically."


C8980. Dirckx, John H. "Medicine and Literature: Sherlock Holmes and the Art of Dermatologic Diagnosis," The Journal of Dermatologic Surgery and Oncology, 5, No. 3 (March 1979), 191-192, 194, 196.

"Though the facts may not support the fiction that Holmes was a competent dermatologist, it is surely not too much to say that every dermatologist should be a Sherlock Holmes."


 Knowledge of Education


C8981. Abrell, Ron. "Mr. Sherlock Holmes: Teaching Exemplar Extraordinary," The Clearing House: A Journal for Middle Schools, Junior and Senior High Schools, 52, No. 9 (May 1979), 403-407.

The purpose of this article is to show the potential that literature may hold for shedding light upon the teaching profession. Holmes is used as an example of how the paths of literature intersect with those in teaching. The detective is portrayed as a teaching exemplar par excellence and as one who shares many of the qualities possessed by great teachers. His portrait intends to show that he also stands as one from whom all teachers can learn much.


C8982. Fisher, Janice. "Would the Master Teacher Merit Merit Pay?" Holmeswork, No. 11 (January 1984), 1-11.

Reviews Holmes's views on education and his ability as a teacher in an effort to determine whether or not he would be worthy of merit pay.


C8983. Kellogg, Richard L. "Holmes, Master of Education," BSJ, 31, No. 4 (December 1981), 226-230.

Sherlock Holmes was a science instructor for several years in London prior to his career in criminology. Topics discussed include his educational background, his ability as a researcher, his notable publications, and his performance as a classroom teacher.


 Knowledge of Fingerprints


C8984. -- A3079. Bigelow, S. Tupper. "Fingerprints and Sherlock Holmes," BSJ, 17, No. 3 (September 1967), 131-135.

A discussion of the literature on the subject, followed by references to fingerprints in the Canon which prove that Holmes fully realized the importance of this method of identification.


C8985. -- A3080. Hogan, John C. "The Fine Art of Finger-Print Detection," BSJ, 13, No. 2 (June 1963), 99-107.

An illustrated article describing a simple method for developing latent fingerprints by means of powders, with some commentary on Holmes's expertise in the art of fingerprinting.


C8986. -- B1410. Browne, Douglas G., and Alan Brock. "Fiction, Fact, and Fingers," Fingerprints., Fifty Years of Scientific Crime Detection. With a foreword by Frederick R. Cherrill. London: George G. Harrap & Co. Ltd., [1953]. Chap. 5, p. 59-61.

----------. ----------, ----------. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., 1954. Chap. 5, p. 71-73.

Discusses Holmes and fingerprints, and concludes that he "placed little confidence in fingerprinting, either as an aid to detection or as a means of registering convicted criminals."


C8987. -- B1411. [Geyer, Jackie.] "Holmes Never Fingered Anyone," by "The Veiled Lodger." ND (October 1976), 4-5.

Although Holmes had the greatest respect for Alphonse Bertillon (1853-1914), he did not adopt the Bertillon system of measurements or the fingerprinting methods that superseded Bertillon's system. Perhaps the reason why Holmes ignored fingerprinting was that he had little faith in something he had not discovered himself.


 Knowledge of Fire


C8988. Scott, Kenneth W. "The Incendiary Sherlock Holmes," Client's Case-Notes. Edited by Brian R. MacDonald. Indianapolis: The Illustrious Clients, 1983. p. 36-38.

A study of Holmes's habits demonstrates that he was careless with fire, and was a risk to himself and things about him.


 Knowledge of Footprints


C8989. Rawlings, Ray. "Upon the Tracing of Miscreants' Footprints," CH, 8, No. 2 (Winter 1984), 20-21.

Recent emphasis on the science of footprint analysis, especially by Dr. Louise Robbins, an anthropologist at the University of North Carolina and perhaps the world's leading footprint expert, only proves the importance of Holmes's own observations on the subject.


C8990. Vatza, Edward J. "An Analysis of the Tracing of Footsteps from Sherlock Holmes to the Present," BSJ, 37, No. 1 (March 1987), 16-21.

Uses internal evidence from the Canon to infer the contents of Holmes's monograph Upon the Tracing of Footsteps and discusses the state of the science in the 1980's.


 Knowledge of Forensic Medicine


C8991. -- B5963. Aronson, Marvin E. "Sherlock Holmes, Father of Forensic Pathology," Transactions & Studies of The College of Physicians of Philadelphia (4th Series), 45, No. 5 (July 1978), 258-261.

By citing a few adventures from the Canon, Dr. Aronson establishes that "the Master was in fact the `Father' of the modern science of Forensic Pathology, and in fact such a skilled practitioner of the art that he did so without budget. He successfully exploited the most simple and cheapest methods for confirming his brilliant conclusions. Would that he were still available to guide us in our more mundane activities which do require such crass things as budgets."


C8992. -- B1412. Hanratty, Thomas F. "Sherlock Holmes: Medico-legal Investigator," NCTM, 1, No. 2 (Spring 1975), 3-5.

"Although Dr. Watson chooses to spare the reader the grim details of Holmes's methods of external examination of murder victims, it is apparent that the Master is an expert forensic investigator."


C8993. -- B5964. Senter, Nancy. "Upon Bruises," BSJ, 28, No. 4 (December 1978), 225-226.

"Holmes, keen amateur forensic pathologist, placed great emphasis on the phenomenon of post- and ante-mortem ecchymosis (bruising), and this accurate distinction remains today an important and often crucial question to contemporary investigators."


C8994. Johnson, Karen L. "Forensic Science and Sherlock Holmes: 1895 vs. 1985," MP, 6, No. 1 (February 1985), 2-5.

An interesting paper on Holmes's knowledge of forensic science, especially forensic medicine, in which the author closes with the following comment: "As we rush along in our lemming-like pursuit of technological advances, we see an alarming increase in `experts.' Today there is no Sherlock Holmes, no embodiment of knowledge, talent and cold reason resting in any one human. Certainly we got the job done, we laborers in the field of forensic science, but we've lost the romance, if you will: the thrill and excitement of discovery that comes with assembling all the facts and laboriously working toward the answers ourselves. We miss out on the Sherlockian process as we become more and more specialized. And so we return to the Canon, to the era and to the challenge of the game. And we salute Sherlock Holmes: while we can do it faster and with more accuracy in many more diverse fields, Holmes does it with style and panache and alone."


C8995. Shanklin, Douglas R. "The Master's Methods in Medical Detection: Five Case Studies of the Utilization of Observation and Deduction in the Realm of Forensic Medicine," GMG, 1, No. 2 (October 1981), 10-14.

"The text of a talk, accompanied by slides, given at the June 11, 1981, meeting of Hugo's Companions."


C8996. Tishler, Peter. "The Telltale Gene," The Sciences (January 1980), 22-25. illus.

Contains references to Sherlock Holmes, including a quotation from Stud.


 Knowledge of Forensic Odontology


C8997. -- B1460. Gemmill, Robert H. "Sherlock Holmes: Pioneer in the Field of Forensic Odontology," BSJ, 27, No. 4 (December 1977), 230-232.

The Master's professional use of dental identification techniques qualifies him to be credited as a consulting detective who pioneered in the field of forensic odontology. His employment of forensic odontology is identified from the following statement: "Pshaw, my dear fellow, what do the public, the great unobservant public, who could hardly tell a weaver by his tooth ..." (Copp).


C8998. Price, Peggy. "Master Gum-Chew; or, The Sherlock Holmes Method of Forensic Dentistry," BSJ, 38, No. 4 (December 1988), 218-222.

The fact that "Sherlock Holmes rubbed his hands with delight (Stoc), when Hall Pycroft noted the same gold-stuffed left-second tooth in the mouths of two men, could only mean one conclusion: Sherlock Holmes did formulate a system of forensic odontology (dentistry). The teeth, if not the skull, tend to survive almost every type of death (Norw) and the process of time. There are a possible 160 tooth surfaces for examination as well as missing teeth, fillings, cavities, fixed bridges, rotation of teeth, extra cusps, bony outgrowths, worn areas, stains, and fractures. Holmes also perfected the systemization of bite-mark analysis (Houn, Suss). From the many references in the Canon to craniology (Houn) and skulls (3Gar, Blue), we know that both Holmes and Watson deduced stature, sex, and race from a skull, but Holmes would have gone far beyond medical skill (Houn) to narrow down the margin of error. The teeth, too, can add many further parameters to the deduction of height, gender, and race.

Holmes's "disputatious" statement to Watson that "the great unobservant public ... could hardly tell a weaver by his tooth." (Copp) is proof that the Master must have added a complex system of odontology to his "Whole Art of Detection." Certainly, one can judge many occupations, food tastes, economic status, systemic conditions and even age from the teeth with the aid of observation, microscopic study, and chemical analysis.

(It is interesting to note that Dr. Watson's Literary Agent, Dr. Doyle, might have been a big help. Doyle's house in Portsmouth, Southsea, had been the previous home of a dentist. That dentist had abandoned countless plaster casts of human teeth and mandibles.)


C8999. [Ueda, Hirotaka. "Holmes and Teeth," EQ:EQMM, No. 93 (May 1993), 160-161.] illus. (EQ Sherlockiana)

Text in Japanese.


 Knowledge of Forensic Science


C9000. Evans, Peter. "A Debate to Test Skill of Holmes," The Times (July 14, 1986), 4.

"Was Sherlock Holmes the real father of modern forensic science?"

Letter: The Times (July 18, 1986), 13 (R. L. Williams), and reprinted in SHJ, 18, No. 1 (Winter 1986), 5.


C9001. Goodman, Susan. "Body of Evidence: New Forensic Technology Puts Science on the Stand," Modern Maturity, 34, No. 5 (October-November 1991), 68-70, 94-95. illus.

Contains a brief comment about Holmes's use of forensic science to solve crimes.


C9002. Pitchandi, N. "Sherlock Holmes as a Pioneer Forensic Scientist," Journal of the Forensic Science Society, 26, No. 3 (May-June 1986), 175-176.

----------. ----------, WF, 4, No. 2 (Spring 1986), 1-2.

A letter from Madras, India, in which the writer cites evidence that Doyle was "an evangelist for forensic science" and Holmes was "a pioneer forensic scientist."

Commentary: Journal of the Forensic Science Society, 26, No. 6 (November-December 1986), 419 (R. L. Williams).


C9003. Stajic, Marina. "Sherlock Holmes," MAAFS Newsletter [Mid-Atlantic Association of Forensic Scientists], 10, No. 2 (July 1982).

Dr. Stajic of the Virginia Bureau of Forensic Sciences briefly discusses Holmes's knowledge of the forensic sciences; e.g., bloodstains, footprints, handwriting, typewriters, chemistry, and poisons.


C9004. Walls, H. J. Forensic Science. London: Sweet & Maxwell Ltd., 1968. xii, 216 p. illus.

The following comment appears in the introduction: "It would not be altogether fanciful to trace the beginning of forensic science to Sherlock Holmes, because his creator Conan Doyle showed remarkable foresight in making him scientifically trained, and thereby almost certainly helped to publicize the idea that science could be applied to the policeman's problems."


C9005. Walls, H. J. "You Know My Methods, Watson," Expert Witness: My Thirty Years in Forensic Science. Foreword by Keith Simpson. London: John Long Ltd., [1972]. Chap. 3, p. 47-63. illus.

----------. ----------, ----------. London: The Quality Book Club, [1973]. Chap. 3, p. 47-63. illus.


C9006. Ward, Jenny. "Sherlock Holmes and Forensic Investigation," SHJ, 20, No. 3 (Winter 1991), 90-92.

Answers the question, "How does Holmes's particular expertise compare with what we know now about forensic science generally in the 1880's and 1890's?"


 Knowledge of Genealogy


C9007. Harrington, Hugh T. "A Family Matter Was Holmes's Research," CH, 10, No. 4 (Summer 1987), 28-30.

Some of Holmes's study was in the science of genealogy. He continued this work through a long period in his life, from before his association with Watson through the periods of Houn, Gree, and Empt. Perhaps the lessons he learned in genealogy research assisted him in his much better known detective investigations.


 Knowledge of Geography


C9008. Gibson, Brian. "Holmes the Geographer," CH, 15, No. 2 (Winter 1991), 28-29, 31.

"Sherlock Holmes was a geographer of high stature. Of course he was a detective first and foremost, but that work involved travel, observation, writings, exotic descriptions, and escapes. All of these experiences added information to the huge realm of geography, a fascinating subject about which Holmes must have the last, if philosophical, word: `The world is big enough for us. No ghosts need apply.'"


 Knowledge of Geology


C9009. -- A3099. Blank, E. W. "Was Sherlock Holmes a Mineralogist?" Rocks and Minerals [Peekskill, N.Y.], 22 (March 1947), 237.

A brief look at his capacities as an expert on rocks and minerals.


C9010. -- A3100. Redmond, Chris. "Holmes and Holmium," BSP Christmas Annual, No. 1 (1966), 14-15.

Sherlock Holmes, along with Per T. Cleve, was involved in the early research on a rare earth named Holmium (Ho165).


C9011. -- B1413. Blau, Peter E. "Forensic Geology: Earth Sciences and Criminal Investigation", by Raymond C. Murray & John C.F. Tedrow, Rutgers University Press, 1975," Geotimes, 20 (October 1975), 32, 34.

As might be expected from a Sherlockian, most of this review is actually about Holmes's knowledge of geology. "There is no doubt that he was the world's first forensic geologist."


C9012. -- B1414. Murray, Raymond C. "The Geologist as Private Eye," Natural History, 84, No. 2 (February 1975), 22, 24-25.

Mentions Holmes and Doyle's use of geology in crime detection.


C9013. Blau, Peter E. "`I Hear of Sherlock Everywhere,'" Earth Science (Summer 1981)., 24-25.

----------. ----------, BSC, 2, No. 1 (January-February 1982), 8.

See also DB1413.


C9014. Blau, Peter E. "Sherlock Holmes and Forensic Geology," Bulletin of the South Texas Geological Society, 25, No. 6 (February 1985), 26-28.


C9015. Boss, Michael P. "A Sherlockian `Discourse on the Earth,'" GT&RP, No. 4 (Winter 1992), 12.

A toast "to the identifier of England's muds and clays and loams, to the world's first forensic geologist."


C9016. Kelly, Norman. "Dirt, Dust, and Doyle," WW, 4, No. 3 (January 1982), 7-8.

Holmes was the first detective to realize the importance of debris at the scene of a crime. Sir Edmond Locard, Raymond Murray, John Tedrow, and others have given him full credit for his advanced thoughts on crime-scene debris and the importance of preserving it.


C9017. Sarjeant, William A. S. "Detectives and Geology," The Armchair Detective, 11, No. 3 (July 1978), 294-297.

----------. ----------, Geolog: Newsletter of the Geological Association of Canada, 8, Pt. 3 (Summer 1979), 43-47.

----------. ----------, The Thorndyke File, No. 18 (Fall 1984), 4-16.

The article begins with a discussion of geology in the Sherlock Holmes stories as well as in Doyle's other writings.


 Knowledge of Graphology


C9018. -- A3101. Christie, Winifred. "Sherlock Holmes and Graphology," SHJ, 2, No. 4 (Winter 1955), 28-31.

About his contribution to graphology. "He was as proficient in handwritings as he was in tobacco ash."


C9019. -- A3102. Swanson, Martin J. "Graphologists in the Canon," BSJ, 12, No. 2 (June 1962), 73-80.

A study of graphology as employed by Holmes, Mrs. St. Clair, Mycroft, Birdy Edwards, and Watson, including an analysis of the Master's own handwriting.


C9020. Halder, Kaspar. "Sherlock Holmes als Graphologe," RJ, No. 5 (Spring-Summer 1993), 7-8.


C9021. Kellogg, Richard L. "Conan Doyle and Graphology," Teaching of Psychology, 11, No. 2 (April 1984), 112-113.

Examples of Holmes uncanny talent for analyzing handwriting, with the suggestion that he helped to popularize the science of graphology.


C9022. Stabholz, Peggy. "Holmes and Hitler: Diaries No Mystery," CH, 7, No. 3 (Spring 1984), 13-15.

"The techniques used to uncover the Hitler forgery are comparable to those used by the Master in various Canonical cases."


C9023. Trapp, David James. "Holmes the Graphologist", BSJ, 31, No. 1 (March 1981), 20-21.

Holmes often missed chances to use handwriting analysis, and when he did use it, his conclusions frequently had no scientific base. He cannot be blamed much for his neglect, however, as graphology was still crude and undeveloped.


 Knowledge of Heredity


C9024. -- A3103. Musto, David F. "Sherlock Holmes and Heredity," The Journal of the American Medical Association, 196, No. 1 (April 4, 1966), 45-49.

----------. ----------, CPBook, 2, Nos. 7-8 (Winter-Spring 1966), 125-129.

Contents: Nineteenth Century Theories of Inheritance. -- Darwin, Galton, and Mendel. -- Holmes's Contribution. -- Inheritance of Personality. -- Particulate Inheritance. -- Holmes and Moriarty. -- Holmes's Ancestry.


C9025. -- A3104. Van Liere, Edward J. "Genetics and Sherlock Holmes," A Doctor Enjoys Sherlock Holmes. New York: Vantage Press, [1959]. p. 88-95.

"Allusions are made in several of the tales to the subject of genetics--that is, the science of heredity. Many of the observations set forth, although perhaps not entirely acceptable today, are nevertheless intellectually stimulating."


C9026. -- B5965. Corcos, Alain. "Sherlock Holmes's Strange Ideas About Heredity and Anthropology," BSJ, 29, No. 1 (March 1979), 13-15.

Holmes was a very successful detective, but he believed, as did his contemporaries, in what since has been shown to be erroneous scientific ideas. Among those cited are: the blood theory of inheritance (Gree), the inheritance of behavioral characteristics (Bosc), the dominance of dark skin over white skin (Yell), and the correlation between brain capacity and intellectual abilities (Blue).


C9027. Kellogg, Richard L. "Heredity and the Great Detective," Network: The Newsletter for Psychology Teachers at Two-Year Colleges, 3, No. 3 (Fall 1985).

The Canonical tales can be used to illustrate how educated Victorians viewed the influence of heredity on biological and psychological traits. Holmes was a strict hereditarian and believed in the heritability of intelligence, criminality, and personality traits. Many of Holmes's notions about heredity have been contradicted by more modern research in biology. However, his ideas were feasible in terms of the scientific knowledge of his era.


 Knowledge of History


C9028. -- A3105. Bell, Whitfield, J. "Holmes and History," BSJ [OS], 2, No. 4 (October 1947), 447-456.

"Certainly to have judged Holmes's knowledge of history as `nil' would have been as undiscerning as Watson's estimation of Holmes's literary attainments. The fact simply is that in history Holmes was a student and a scholar who might have honored the faculty of arts at any university."


 Knowledge of Languages and Literature


C9029. -- A3106. [Bengis, Nathan L.] Baker Street Rubáiyát, by Sherlock Holmes (With apologies to Edward FitzGerald). New York: [Privately Printed], 1949. [4] p.

Limited to 100 numbered copies.

----------. ----------, SHJ, 4, No. 2 (Spring 1959), 69.

A parody of the Rubáiyát verses, in eight quatrains, as by Sherlock Holmes, in apostrophe to John H. Watson. In SHJ there is an introduction citing evidence from Houn that Holmes was well acquainted with the FitzGerald translation.


C9030. -- A3107. Boyer, Sharon R. "Sherlock Holmes and the Classics," BSJ, 12, No. 1 (March 1962), 23-30.

"Of all the scholars who have been attracted and devoted to the Classics, none has ever been as illustrious, and yet, paradoxically, more little known than the world's greatest detective, Sherlock Holmes." This paper is an attempt to show, "the breadth and depth of that interest as it has been recorded in the Canon of Conan."


C9031. -- A3108. Dickensheet, Dean W. "Sherlock Holmes -- Linguist," BSJ, 10, No. 3 (July 1960), 133-142.

"To summarize, Holmes is fluent in English, Idiomatic American, French, German, Italian, Norwegian, and, of necessity, Gaelic. His professional activity shows the necessity for a knowledge of Russian, Swedish, Dutch, and probably Chinese. His travels after Reichenbach required a knowledge of Arabic, but the languages of the Tibeto-Burman group, as well as any other Asian or African tongues, were probably spoken through interpreters. He had a superior knowledge of Latin, and was capable of making comparative studies of ancient Cornish and Chaldean. Without any direct evidence, we may assume that he knew some Greek, some Persian, and had at least some knowledge of the philological antecedents of English, French, and German."


C9032. -- A3109. Goslin, Vernon. "Sherlock Holmes and the Shakespearean Canon," SHJ, 8, No. 1 (Winter 1966), 12-14.

The Master is revealed as a Shakespearean scholar whose magnum opus might well have been A Study of the Influence of a German University Education Upon the Behaviour of a Crown Prince of Scandinavia, with its subtitle: Some Practical Observations Upon the Crime of Fratricide.


C9033. -- A3110. McLauchlin, Russell. "Sherlock Holmes Was Mr. W. H.," BSJ, 9, No. 1 (January 1959), 10-13.

The true author of the Shakespearean plays and sonnets was William (Sherlock) Holmes; written during his hiatus.


C9034. -- A3111. Olney, Clarke. "The Literacy of Sherlock Holmes," SHJ, 2, No. 4 (Winter 1955), 9-15.

----------. ----------, The University of Kansas City Review, 22, No. 3 (March 1956), 176-180.

Professor Olney adds substantially to the findings of Vernon Rendall (DA2904) and others that Watson seriously undervalued Holmes's knowledge of literature.


C9035. -- A3112. Rabe, W. T. "Once More, Watson, into the Breach!" BSG, 1, No. 1 (1961), 10-13.

Watson deduces that Holmes is the author of Henry V!


C9036. -- A3113. Rosenkjar, Patrick R. "Holmes, the Man of Letters," BSJ, 15, No. 2 (June 1965), 95, 102.

----------. ----------, SIS, 1, No. 1 (June 1965), 19-21.

"It is absolutely certain that Holmes acquired the varied knowledge of literature, which he demonstrated so often in later years, before he met Watson."


C9037. -- A3114. [Vander Rhin, William.] "`Knowledge of Literature--Nil?'" by J. R. Stefanie [pseud.] SHJ, 6, No. 4 (Spring 1964), 120-122.

Contents: 1. Examples of Holmes's Literary Background. -- 2. Holmes's Use of the Vernacular in Regard to Literature. -- 3. Arguments Against Holmes's Literary Knowledge. -- 4. Summary.


C9038. -- A3115. Von Krebs, Maria. "`Knowledge of Literature -- Nil.' Indeed?" BSJ, 8, No. 3 (July 1958), 149-157.

Passages from the Canon are quoted to show that Holmes had "from at least fair to widely extensive knowledge" of foreign languages, literature, music, and art.


C9039. -- B1415. Adelman, Charles S. "Who Can Tell," Chicago Tribune (November 2, 1951).

"I wonder why Sherlock Holmes / Never wrote humorous polmes. / Perhaps he hated persiflage / And had no ear for versiflage."


C9040. -- B1416. [Christ, Jay Finley.] "To Charles S. Adelman," by Langdale Pike. Chicago Tribune (November 8, 1951).

"So, Sherlock Holmes composed no polmes; / And this you think a riddle? / On such a rime you waste your time / To put me in the middle? / My dear good friend, let's made an end / To all this foolish quiddle! / Holmes merely chose to write in prose -- / His art was for his fiddle."


C9041. -- B1417. Criscuola, Margaret Movshin. "The Montague Street Experiment," The Noble Bachelors' Red-Covered Volume. Edited by Philip A. Shreffler. St. Louis: Birchmoor Press, 1974. p. 31-36.

Holmes's wide knowledge of poetry, as shown in Canonical allusions, proves that he spent the Montague Street years trying, unsuccessfully, to become a poet.


C9042. -- B1418. Dunning, W. E. "El Señor Sherlock Holmes y la Lengua Española (Mr. Sherlock Holmes and the Spanish Language)," BSJ, 24, No. 4 (December 1974), 204-207.

Citing all examples of the use of Spanish in the Canon, this article shows that while Holmes, Watson, and Doyle were, to various degrees, masters of many languages, they treated Spanish badly, particularly with reference to the usage of "Don" and "señora" in Wist and gender in Stud. This roughness is proof of the authenticity of Watson's narrative.


C9043. -- B1419. Hart, David. "Some Inquiries into Sherlock Holmes's Literary Tastes," Canon Fodder. Charles O. Gray, editor. Little Rock: The Arkansas Valley Investors, Ltd., 1976. p. 22-29.

Includes a list of seventeen literary allusions and references.


C9044. -- B1420. Helling, Cornelis. "Sherlock Holmes, Linguist," BSJ, 23, No. 3 (September 1973), 147.

A note on his linguistic ability.

Review: BSJ, 23, No. 4 (December 1973), 252 (Frank A. Hoffmann).


C9045. -- B1421. Highet, Gilbert. The Immortal Profession: The Joys of Teaching and Learning. New York: Weybright and Talley, [1976]. viii, 223 p.

A marvellous book that contains a brief commentary on Holmes's use of foreign language quotations (p. 108). Highet's book should be required reading for all teachers.


C9046. -- B1422. "Knowledge of Literature -- Nil?" SHJ, 11, No. 3 (Winter 1973), 78-85.

Contents: Shakespeare, by Vernon Goslin. -- Hafiz, by Charles Scholefield. -- Horace, by F. D. Bryan-Brown. -- Literature in General, by Roger Lancelyn Green.

These papers were read at a symposium at the Royal Commonwealth Society on September 18, 1972.


C9047. -- B1423. Ryan, Harold. "Sherlock and Francesco," SHJ, 12, No. 2 (Winter 1975), 47-48. illus.

The pocket Petrarch that Holmes read while travelling to the scene of the crime in Bosc may have been the one published in Rome by Eduardo Perino, dated 1891. At first thought there is little in this collection of love sonnets that would have interested the detective. However, many of them not only were written to one woman (Laura) -- for Holmes there was one woman (Irene) but some also contain passages (quoted) about detection and disguises.


C9048. Gibson, Brian. "Sherlock Holmes and Latin," CH, 16, No. 1 (Autumn 1992), 14-17.

Examples of Holmes's knowledge of the Latin language.


C9049. Koike, Shigeru. "Sherlock Holmes, Professor of English Literature," SNSHC, 2, No. 1 (May 4, 1991), 2-8.

Text in Japanese.

"Sherlock Holmes is now a professor at some (anonymous) university. Here is given an abstract of his lecture on George Meredith in whom he has reason to take a special interest. He refers to such topics as `Meredith and women,' `reception of Meredith by a Japanese scholar,' etc."


C9050. Sayle, Jane. "Francesco Petrarch (1304-1374)," BSPB, No. 12 (October 1992), 25-27. (The Lomax Library)

An attempt to identify the pocket edition of Petrarch's works that Holmes read on the train to Boscombe Valley. "Holmes would have been more interested in the `Petrarchism' of the philosophical Latin works than in the lyricism of the Italian poems, and this would suggest that the `pocket Petrarch' was not the `Canzoniere.' This particular librarian, however, declines to fall on which Roman empirical volume it actually was!"


C9051. Shreffler, Philip A. "A Study of the Chaldean Roots in the Ancient Cornish Language," BSJ, 30, No. 4 (December 1980), 223-229.

In Devi, Holmes announces his conviction that the ancient Cornish language is derived from the Phoenician traders in tin who were thought to visit Cornwall. This theory has been supported by the recent findings of Harvard University 's Prof. Barry Fell who has discovered rock inscriptions in the U. S. that seem to be written in both the Punic script of the Carthaginian Phoenicians and in Celtic Ogam, the script of the European Celts. This suggests not only an astonishingly early date for American colonization, but also a solid connection between Semitic and Celtic written language -- thus lending credence to Holmes's theory.


 Knowledge of Mathematics


C9052. Drazen, Patrick. "A Fifth of Euclid," CHJ, 2, No. 8 (August 1980), 2-3.

Examines Holmes's reference to "the fifth proposition [postulate] of Euclid" (Sign).


 Knowledge of Music


See also Maza and Gilbert and Sullivan.


C9053. -- A3116. Barzun, Jacques. "How Holmes Came to Play the Violin," BSJ, 1, No. 3 (July 1951), 108-112.

"Holmes played the violin with uncommon skill. Indeed, his technique was so uncommon that he frequently played with the instrument `thrown across his knee.'... At those moments ... Holmes was thinking of his childhood and his mother; he was reproducing something of the atmosphere he had known when he first began to show an interest in music--childish scrapings across the strings of his mother's fiddle, doubtless when she herself had finished practicing."


C9054. -- A3117. Berg, Curt. "Sherlock Holmes och musiken" ["Sherlock Holmes and Music"], Dagens Nyheter (August 17, 1947).

----------. ----------, Fallet Baker Street III. Stockholm: Albert Bonniers Forlag, [1951].

----------. ----------, BSCL, No. 2 (July 1963), 5-10.

A discussion of Guy Warrack's book (DA3140) and Holmes's monograph on Lassus.


C9055. -- A3118. Boswell, Rolfe. "The Affair of Sherlock's Fiddle--Was Conan Doyle's Holmes a Violinist or Violist? " The Musical Digest, 30, No. 7 (August-September 1948), 6-7, 25.

----------. "Quick, Watson, the Fiddle," BSJ [OS], 3, No. 4 (October 1948), 435-440.

"Writers who deal in musical terminology often complain that printers and proofreaders appear to be unaware that the violin's darkling congener is spelt `viola.' There, then, is the solution to the problem of the unorthodox fiddling position. Holmes played the viola!"


C9056. -- A3119. Boucher, Anthony. "The Records of Baker Street," BSJ [OS], 4, No. 1 (January 1949), 97-104.

An exhaustive study of the recordings that might have been acquired by Holmes and Watson.


C9057. -- A3120. Christie, Winifred M. "Some Reflections on That Little Thing of Chopin's," Leaves from the Copper Beeches. Narberth, Pa.: Livingston Pub. Co., 1959. p. 81-89.

A careful search through the works of Chopin reveals that the melody in question is the A-minor Etude, Op. 25, No. 11.


C9058. -- A3121. Clarkson, Paul S. "`In the Beginning...,'" BSJ, 8, No. 4 (October 1958), 197-209.

An attempt to prove by the recorded musical history of the period that Stud began on Saturday, March 5, 1881.


C9059. -- A3122. Grosbayne, Benjamin. "Sherlock Holmes -- Musician," BSJ [OS], 3, No. 1 (January 1948), 47-57.

"This side of his nature, the artistic, which he always kept carefully concealed, is best understood when we consider him as a musician."


C9060. -- A3123. Grosbayne, Benjamin. "To Sherlock Holmes -- Violinist," BSJ [OS] 2, No. 1 (January 1947), 26-27.

"So here's an artless triolin / To Sherlock Holmes's violin!"


C9061. -- A3124. Grudeff, Marian, and Raymond Jessel. "The Avant-Garde on Baker Street," New York Herald Tribune Magazine (May 9, 1965), 43.

"The fact that the great sleuth was a composer of genius is a matter that seems to have escaped the attention of most students of Holmesian lore."


C9062. -- A3125. Hall, Trevor H. "Sherlock Holmes, Madness and Music," Sherlock Holmes. Ten Literary Studies. London: Gerald Duckworth & Co., [1969]. Chap. 6, p. 86-92.

The author is critical of Guy Warrack (DA3140) for suggesting that Holmes was a schizophrenic (an opinion based on his behaviour while listening to a Sarasate violin sonata in RedH) and that he did not write a monograph on the Polyphonic Motets of Lassus.


C9063. -- A3126. Kennedy, Bruce. "The Sound of Music," SOS, 1, No. 6 (August 1967), 4.

Holmes played both the violin and the debro guitar--the latter instrument is played over the knee.


C9064. -- A3127. Kjell, Bradley. "How Holmes Helped Select a Stradivarius," SOS, 2, No. 3 (February 1968), 4-5.

The author tells how he purchased a violin modeled after the Stradivarius owned by Sarasate.


C9065. -- A3128. McMahon, Thomas P. ["Fiddle Riddle"], The New York Times (March 28, 1965), II, 15.

----------. ----------, BSJ, 15, No. 2 (June 1965), 126.

An addendum to "Tra-la-la-lira-lira-lay," by Harold Schonberg.


C9066. -- A3129. Montgomery, James. "What Is This Thing Called Music? (or Body and Soul)," Art in the Blood, and What Is This Thing Called Music? (or Body and Soul). [Philadelphia: Privately Printed, 1950.] [unpaged]

----------. ----------, BSJ, 1, No. 4 (October 1951), 144-145.

----------. ----------, First stanza tr. into Danish by A. D. Henriksen. Sangen om Baker Street. København: [Grafisk Cirkel], 1958. p. 11. Reprinted in Sherlockiana, 3, Nr. 3-4 (1958), 10.

"When Sherlock Holmes began to brood, / And things were getting dreary, / His violin revealed his mood / (The chords were weird and eerie)."


C9067. -- A3130. Officer, Harvey. "Sherlock Holmes and Music," 221b: Studies in Baker Street. Edited by Vincent Starrett. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1940. p. 71-73.

"Diligent search has failed to unearth a copy of that precious monograph [on the Polyphonic Motets of Orlando di Lasso]. The name of Sherlock Holmes does not occur in Grove's Dictionary of Music. In spite of these facts we are clearly justified in ranking Holmes among the great musicologists of our time."


C9068. -- A3131. Ohman, Anders R. "Violinisten på 221 Baker Street" ["The Violin Player of 221 Baker Street"] Svenska Dagbladet (July 28, 1957).

----------. ----------, BSCL, No. 2 (July 1963), 21-26.

A discussion of Holmes's Lassus monograph and Decca's LP record Doctor Watson Meets Sherlock Holmes (DA5560).


C9069. -- A3132. Roberts, S. C. "The Music of Baker Street," The Oxford Magazine, 65, No. 15 (May 1, 1947), 273-275.

----------. ----------, BSJ [OS], 2, No. 4 (October 1947), 429-432.

----------. "Sherlock Holmes: His Music," Holmes and Watson: A Miscellany. London: Oxford University Press, 1953. p. 45-50.

A review of Guy Warrack's Sherlock Holmes and Music.


C9070. -- A3133. Rosenkjar, Pat. "Holmes and Tchaikovsky," SIS, 1, No. 3 (1966), 21-23, 26.

"Holmes not only enjoyed good music, but also the friendship of the greatest musical genius of the later nineteenth century, Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky."


C9071. -- A3134. Rybrant, Gösta. "Fallet tra-la-la-lira-lira-lay" ["The Case of ..."], Aftonbladet (December 26, 1953).

----------. ----------, BSCL, No. 2 (July 1963), 13-20.

"That little thing of Chopin's" is identified as Sarasate's E-major transcription of Chopin's Nocturne in E-flat major.


C9072. -- A3135. Schonberg, Harold C. "Tra-la-la-lira-lira-lay," The New York Times (March 7, 1965), II, 11.

----------. ----------, BSJ, 15, No. 2 (June 1965), 83-85.

The senior music critic of The New York Times identifies the instrument Holmes played across his knees as the vielle, and the piece by Chopin as the first of the Polish Songs -- "The Maiden's Wish."


C9073. -- A3136. Smith, William. "`That Little Thing of Chopin's': The Laying of the Ghost," BSJ, 13, No. 1 (March 1963), 24-30.

Primarily a discussion of Mrs. Christie's article in which the author concludes that the "little thing of Chopin's" was not the A-minor Etude but the Fourth Polonaise, in C minor.


C9074. -- A3137. Staff, Herbert W. "Sherlock Holmes, Violin-Player," BSJ, 13, No. 1 (March 1963), 37-38.

"If we assume that Holmes possessed an opposable big toe--that is, a prehensile foot--he could indeed have held and played the violin in the manner which Watson described."


C9075. -- A3138. Svensson, Sven E. "Brev till Curt Berg" ["Letter to Curt Berg"], BSCL, No. 2 (July 1963), 11-12.

A commentary on Berg's article and the Motets of Lassus.

C9076. -- A3139. Wait, Richard. "The Case of the Neophyte and the Motet," The Second Cab. Edited by James Keddie. [Boston: The Speckled Band, 1947.] p. 70-72.

The author tells of his search for a meaningful definition of the polyphonic motets that Holmes wrote about in his learned monograph.


C9077. -- A3140. Warrack, Guy. Sherlock Holmes and Music. London: Faber and Faber Ltd., [1947]. 56 p.

----------. ----------, SHJ, 9, No. 4 (Summer 1970), 114-117; 10, No. 1 (Winter 1970), 7-12; 10, No. 2 (Summer 1971), 39-44.

A penetrating study of the Master as a concertgoer, composer, and violinist by a conductor, composer, and past chairman of The Sherlock Holmes Society.


C9078. -- A3141. White, William Braid. "Sherlock Holmes and the Equal Temperament," BSJ [OS], 1, No. 1 (January 1946), 39-43.

A scholarly analysis of the Master's musical capacities that explains his choice of the violin as his medium of expression.


C9079. -- A3142. Wolff, Julian. "Just What Was That Thing of Chopin's?" BSJ, 13, No. 1 (March 1963), 3-4. (The Editor's Gas-Lamp)

After listing seven items on the subject and the conclusions reached by each author, Dr. Wolff offers his own non-musical suggestion that "when Watson wrote `Tra-la-la-lira-lira-lay,' he was not quoting Holmes (or Chopin) at all, but was merely misquoting Tennyson."


C9080. -- A3143. Zeisler, Ernest B. "Tra-la-la-lira-lira-lay," SHJ, 4, No. 1 (Winter 1958), 11-12.

A refutation of Paul Clarkson's position (DA3121) that Stud began a day later than Friday, March 4, 1881--the date assigned by Dr. Zeisler. He also identifies the tune Holmes sang in the cab as Chopin's Waltz in E minor. (A discussion of the article appears in letters to the editor from Eric H. Thiman, Ernest B. Zeisler, and Bernard Davies on pages 78-80 and 105-106 of the same volume.)


C9081. -- B1424. De Waal, Ronald B. The Two Masters: Holmes and Beethoven. [Ft. Collins, Colo.: Privately Printed, 1972.] illus. (De Waal's Christmas Card No. 1)

----------. ----------, BSJ, 23, No. 2 (June 1973), 104-105.

Although Watson failed to mention Holmes's devotion to the music of Beethoven, non-Canonical references to the composer and his music appear in parodies by Beerbohm, Leacock, and Ferguson, and in two Rathbone films. Furthermore, The Egmont Overture was on the program of music for Doyle's play, The Speckled Band.

Review: BSJ, 23, No. 3 (September 1973), 191 (Edward A. Merrill).


C9082. -- B5966. Harris, Bruce. "Holmes Got It from a Jew Broker in the Tottenham Court Road," FTM, No. 2 (December 1978), 6-8.

The detective was deceived by the Jew pawnbroker (Card) -- identified as the same Jew peddler who came to see Holmes years earlier (Stud). Holmes never owned a Stradivarius, and he knew it.


C9083. -- B1425. Lebowitz, Mo. A Trifling Monograph Dealing with Sherlock Holmes and His Violin. Being researched, written or plagiarized by the Prop. of The Antique Press, investitured as Arthur Staunton by The Baker Street Irregulars, Mo Lebowitz. [North Bellmore, N.Y.: The Antique Press, 1974.] 1 sheet (22 x 17 in.) illus.

Limited to 90 numbered and signed copies.


C9084. -- B1426. Linsenmeyer, John M. "Upon the Polyphonic Motets of Lassus," BSJ, 24, No. 1 (March 1974), 29-30. illus.

Some writers have attempted to classify the works of Orlando di Lasso (or Lassus) as extreme esoterica. In fact, they are fairly typical Renaissance pieces, and Holmes's interest in them indicates nothing more than a music amateur's good taste.


C9085. -- B1427. Lloyd, L. J. "Sherlock Holmes, Violinist," The Strad, 85 (January 1975), 569-573.

----------. ----------, DCC, 11, No. 4-5 (September 1975), 5-6.

Explores the detective's favorite recreation and his tastes in music.


C9086. -- B1428. Mackler, Allen. "Carina: An Identification," BSM, No. 3 (September 1975), 4-5.

Carina, who sang at Albert Hall (Reti), was actually the famous Croatian soprano, Milka Ternina. Included in this brief essay is a salute, in verse, to musicians in the Canon.

See also DB1503.


C9087. -- B1429. Merrill, Edward Atkinson, and Earl Bernard Murray. "That Monograph Upon the Polyphonic Motets of Lassus," BSJ, 24, No. 1 (March 1974), 23-28.

Develops a theory that reconciles the excellence of Holmes's monograph, "said by experts to be the last word on the subject," with his rudimentary musical education and questionable exposure to the music that would qualify him as an authority on this subject. An early, unchronicled return from Tibet provided two years in the Leipzig studios where, incognito, placing his talents for scholarly research at their disposal, he collaborated with the editors of the definitive edition of Lassus's works, published in 1894.

Review: BSJ, 24, No. 3 (September 1974), 184 (Banesh Hoffmann).


C9088. -- B1430. "Musical Recollections of St. James's Hall, 1883," The Illustrated London News, 83 (September 1, 1883), 204.

----------. ----------, SHJ, 12, No. 2 (Winter 1975), 68.

Sketches of musicians, including Neruda and Sarasate, whom Holmes and Watson may have seen at St. James's Hall.


C9089. -- B1431. Richards, Lyman G., and Robert L. "Sherlock Holmes -- Fiddler or Violinist?" The Fourth Cab. Boston: Stoke Moran Publishers, 1976. p. 27-34.

Several comments by Holmes and Watson, quoted therein, prove conclusively that the Master Detective was knowledgeable about music and a skilled violinist. At heart he was both a fiddler and a violinist, depending on his mood.


C9090. -- B1432. Schuster, Christian. "The Case of the Fiddle Across His Knee: An Elementary Solution," More Leaves from the Copper Beeches. Lititz, Pa.: Sutter House, 1976. p. 141-149. illus.

Brilliant musicians have despaired of duplicating the Master's production of melancholy and sonorous or fantastic and cheerful chords on a fiddle thrown across the knee. Schuster, reasoning severely from the data, demonstrates that if a fiddler can handle the D minor Partita at all, he can do so in the Holmes position.


C9091. -- B5967. Slonimsky, Nicolas. "The Great Sarasate," The Christian Science Monitor (May 13, 1959), 2. illus.

The article begins by noting Holmes's interest in the famous violinist.


C9092. Blau, Peter E. "Sarasate plays at the St. James's hall this afternoon ..." Washington, D.C.: The Spermaceti Press, 1989. 1 folded sheet.

Prepared for the annual dinner of The Baker Street Irregulars, January 6, 1989.

A studio portrait, with comments, of Pablo de Sarasate, taken by Walery at 164 Regent St., London.


C9093. Boe, John. Vespers of Passiontide and Easter Motets by Orlandus Lassus (1532-94). Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, College of Communications and Fine Arts, School of Music. 11 p.

A paper delivered at the Lutheran Student Center on April 1, 1979, containing an introductory paragraph about Holmes's treatise on "The Polyphonic Motets of Lassus."


C9094. Doyle, Pj. "`The Adventure of the Cardboard Box' -- Stuck in a Locked Room," Explorations, No. 17 (March 1992), 11-12.

The author escaped from her "locked room" by rereading a Canonical tale (Card) and then realized that Holmes escaped from his by playing the violin or attending a concert.


C9095. Drazen, Patrick. "An Etude in Scarlet," BCA (1987), 7-10.

Follows the "thread of music" that runs through Holmes and Watson's first collaboration, "a thread no less consistent than the scarlet thread of murder."


C9096. Francis, Thomas J. "Sherlock Holmes -- What Kind of a Musician Was He?" Q£$, 8, No. 1 (February 1987), 4-11.

"Holmes was an excellent musician; had all the skills of a Jazz player; played music which definitely followed the forms of Jazz and may have even recorded. It is quite possible that some of the greats like Dizzy Gillespie and Coleman Hawkins owe a nod to the world's first consulting detective and Jazz musician."


C9097. Galerstein, David. "Those Eight Brief Notes Holmes Sang in the Cab," CH, 5, No. 4 (Summer 1982), 26.

Some thoughts on a perennial Sherlockian topic of argument; namely, the identification of the Chopin piece played by Norman-Néruda. "There is only one way to find out what the piece was, and that is to inquire of a retired beekeeper in Sussex."

Letter: CH, 6, No. 1 (Autumn 1982), 13 (Sherlock Holmes).


C9098. Gurr, Ted. "Fiddle Prattle, or The Riddle of the Fiddle from Cremona," CH, 16, No. 4 (Summer 1993), 19-21.

"Some poetic observations about Sherlock Holmes, fiddles -- and a possible connection between Holmes's interest in the Stradivarius and in coal-tar derivatives."


C9099. Keefauver, Brad. "Violin Conversations," BSJ, 37, No. 2 (June 1987), 76-79.

In considering the content of Holmes's talks on Stradivarius and Paganini, the author deduces when Holmes purchased his own Stradivarius and why he kept its true nature from Watson for a time.


C9100. Klasek, Terry A."Sherlock Holmes and Introspective Music, or The Adventure of the Lost Musical Programmer," WW, 3, No. 1 (May 1980), 12-13.

----------. ----------, MM, No. 26 (August 1981), 10-11.

One of the selections on the program for the concert Holmes and Watson attended at St. James's Hall (RedH) may have been the Kanon in D Major by the German Baroque composer Johann Pachelbel.


C9101. Langfeldt, Bent. Musikeren Sherlock Holmes. [Asmindrup, Denmark]: Antikvariat Pinkerton, 1993. 38 p. illus.

Omslag: Peder Bundgaard.

Limited to 213 copies.

Contents: Indhold. -- Prolog. -- Introitus. -- Holmes's Violin. -- Paganini. -- Sarasate. -- St. James' Hall. -- Madame Norman-Néruda. -- Orlando di Lasso. -- Opera. -- Epilog. -- Forkortelser. -- Referencer.


C9102. Lauria, Steven. "Sherlock Holmes: Violin Owner," BSJ, 30, No. 3 (September 1980), 174-176.

The author ably deduces that the Master owned more than one violin and that his Stradivarius once belonged to Paganini.


C9103. Olding, Alan C. "Holmes on the Violin," SHJ, 16, No. 3 (Winter 1983), 96. (Wigmore Street Postbag)

"Watson's ignorance upon the subject of violin music and Holmes's interest in Paganini are the clues to what Holmes was playing with those sonorous, melancholy, fantastic and cheerful chords."


C9104. Robinson, Robert E. "Tra-la-la-lira-lira-lay," BSM, No. 30 (Summer 1982), 15-16, inside back cover.

Watson was mistaken in attributing this piece to Chopin. It was actually composed by Tchaikovsky (Chaikovskii), and is identified as the Second Movement of the Symphony No. 4 in F-Minor, which was first performed on February 22, 1878.

Letter: BSM, No. 32 (Winter 1932), 29 (Louis J. Lasillo).


C9105. Roche, Jerome. "Lassus Yesterday and Tomorrow," The Musical Times, 123 (May 1982), 353, 355, 357.

An article published on the anniversary of the composer's 450th birthday in which the author appropriately writes that the last word on Lassus's motets is still to be found in Holmes's monograph The Polyphonic Motets of Lassus.


C9106. Russell, William. "Phonographic Souvenirs of Holmes's London," BSJ, 35, No. 2 (June 1985), 84-89.

A look at some of the operatic stars and customs of Sherlock Holmes's London, with suggestions of available recordings of those artists he certainly heard in performance and whose recordings were probably played in Baker Street.


C9107. Schonberg, Harold C. "Elementary, My Dear Watson," Facing the Music, by Harold C. Schonberg. New York: Summit Books, [1981]. p. 405-409.

First published under title "Tra-la-la-lira-lira-lay" in The New York Times, March 7, 1965 (DA3135).


C9108. Sheppard, Walter. "Sherlock Holmes: Violinist & Musicologist," Apprise Magazine (October 1981), 11, 36.

----------. ----------, MP, 3, No. 1 (February 1982), 5-6.

----------. ----------, CPBook, 5, No. 2 (June 1982), 450-451.

Evidence that Holmes may have been an even greater violinist and musicologist than a detective.


C9109. Skene-Melvin, Lewis David St. Columb. A Concert of the Music Enjoyed by Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson. Presented at the Arts and Letters Club of Toronto, April 17, 1985. Biographical and programme notes by L. David St. C. Skene-Melvin. [Toronto: Ann's Books and Mostly Mysteries, 1985.] 10 p.

Cover illustration by Kathleen Gabriel.

Limited to 300 copies.


C9110. Speck, Gordon R. "Holmes's Violin," Q£$, 7, No. 3 (August 1986), 36-38.

A recent news item suggests the facts behind the facts of Holmes's acquisition of his violin and possibly the destruction of it.


C9111. Warner, Richard S. "Two Stepping Through Texas," KCDJ, No. 41 (October 13, 1984), 3-4.

Describes the travels of Holmes after leaving Kansas City on his way to New Orleans to return to England and his future and how he was taught by Saladin H. Wills, M.D., the grandfather of Bob Wills, to play the wild tunes on his violin that so intrigued Watson and that we now know to have been country-western music.


C9112. Warrack, Guy. Sherlock Holmes and Music. [New York: Magico Magazine, 1984.] 56 p.

First published by Faber and Faber, 1947 (DA3140).


C9113. Warren, Douglas S. "Just Who Did Sell Sherlock Holmes a Violin Made by Stradivari?" SHJ, 16, No. 1 (Winter 1982), 18-19, 21. illus.

Holmes may have bought his violin, not from a Jew broker in Tottenham Court Road, but from Thomas Smith of Birmingham. The company celebrated its 100th birthday in 1981. It was thus in existence some two years before Card.


C9114. Wilson, Philip K. "Fiddling Around: Sherlockian Anecdotes of Paganini," CH, 12, No. 2 (Winter 1988), 23-25.

Parallels between Holmes and Paganini are presented, both in prose and in a Holmes/Watson dialogue. The author notes similarities in their personalities, escapades, and public regard.


 Knowledge of Nature


See also Sherlock Holmes -- Retirement


C9115. -- A3144. Crocker, Stephen F. "Sherlock Holmes's Appreciation of Nature," Philological Papers, 6 [West Virginia University Bulletin, Series 49, No. 12-V, June 1949], 86-99.

"Appreciation of nature found a definite place among Holmes's many gifts. The evidence--revealed by Watson, attested by Mycroft, and confirmed by Holmes--is conclusive. If some doubting Thomas objects by taking the anti-sleuthistic view that the trio never existed and that the Writings are mere fiction, let him be spared from such heresy by heeding the testimony of Basil Rathbone [DA3230]. He visited Holmes in the summer of 1946, and found him living close to nature in a thatched cottage on the Sussex Downs."


C9116. -- B1433. Simms, Bartlett D. "Sherlock Holmes, Proto-Ecologist," The Noble Bachelors' Red-Covered Volume. Edited by Philip A. Shreffler. St Louis: Birchmoor Press, 1974. p. 27-29.

Holmes enjoyed the outdoors and was concerned about environmental problems.


C9117. Jiggens, Clifford. "Sherlock Holmes, Countryman," Drawing by Brian Walker. The Countryman [Oxford, Eng.], 87, No. 1 (Spring 1982), 121-125.

----------. ----------, MSB, 12, No. 7 (January 1990), 1, 3-4.

While Holmes chose to make a living in the city, possibly because he had come to associate the countryside with some traumatic event that occurred in his younger days, he still remained a countryman at heart. In spite of Watson's observation, a study of the Canon reveals that his companion did enjoy nature and that on many occasions he showed a familiarity with country life and country ways unlikely to have been acquired by anyone whose roots were in the town.


C9118. Simms, Bartlett D. "Sherlock Holmes, Proto-Ecologist," BCA, No. 7 (1992), 16-18.

Reprinted from The Noble Bachelors' Red-Covered Volume, 1974 (DB1433).


C9119. Skornickel, George R., Jr. "Holmes Was a Druid!" SP, 3, No. 2 (January 1981), 16-17.

The numerous references to trees, especially oak trees, in the Canon proves that the detective was a druid, or tree worshipper.


 Knowledge of Pharmacy


C9120. Barnett, Robert L., Jr. "Sherlock Holmes -- Pharmacist?" The Kentucky Pharmacist (June 1991), 150-151.

An editor's note on Holmes's powers of observation and deduction and limits of knowledge, including his knowledge of pharmacy. "Holmes could have been a pharmacist if he had chosen to do so."


 Knowledge of Philately


C9121. "Sherlock Holmes -- The Father of Postal History as Well as Detection?" Stamp & Postal History News [London] (July 8-21, 1981), 24.

Examples of how Holmes drew more conclusions from an envelope than the name of the addressee. He makes reference to the franking of a letter in thirteen of the sixty recorded cases. In one (Five), the postmarks of a series of letters enable him to deduce the identity of the criminals and their whereabouts. Sherlock Holmes can be considered the father of postal history.

Introduction to The Universal Sherlock Holmes
Volume 1 of The Universal Sherlock Holmes
Volume 2 of The Universal Sherlock Holmes
Volume 3 of The Universal Sherlock Holmes
Volume 4 of The Universal Sherlock Holmes