Selected Resources for: Census 2000

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Subject Librarian:

Amy West

This subject covers: information about and results from the 22nd United States census, taken in April of 2000. The census is taken every 10 years for the purpose of reapportioning seats in Congress among the states. In addition to counting the number of persons, the census has historically provided a wide range of demographic and economic data about our nation's people. This data is used not only to support policy development and decisionmaking in the public and private sectors, but also as the basis for allocating approximately $180 billion in federal funds annually to state and local governments.

Article Databases and Indexes

Academic or Scholarly Articles Subject Indexes

Created by Queens College, City University of New York, and partnering with the University of Minnesota's own National Historical Geographic Information System, this subscription edition of Social Explorer offers the ability to create customized maps and reports of demographic, housing, and employment patterns throughout the United States using data from the U.S. Census Bureau.

Catalogs and Bibliographies


Search with MNCAT to find books, journals, etc. owned by the library. Search by keyword, subject, title, or author for materials on your topic.

General Reference Sources

Forms, Tests, Inventories

200 Years Of U.S. Census Taking : Population And Housing Questions, 1790-1990

This book contains copies of the original Census questionnaires and the instructions to enumerators.

Informational copies of the actual questionnaires.

Lists the questions asked and instructions to enumerators for 1790-2000 Censuses. Includes images of census forms (some filled) over time.


A searchable and browsable database of terms related to the U.S. Census.


A quick reference guide showing which Census 2000 data products will be produced in which formats: print, CD/DVD, and internet only. There is now a companion guide organized by subject, Data Products by Subject. However, it doesn't include the medium of release, so you'll have to use it in conjunction with the main data products table.

Special tabulations are not standard Census Bureau data products, but are generally sponsored by other public and private organizations and they are made fully or partially freely available to the public online. They include the Census Transportation Planning Package, the Comprehensive Housing Affordability Strategy, and the Special Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) Tabulation.

History and background information on the Census Bureau and its programs, including the decennial census.

This Bulletin establishes guidance for agencies that collect or use aggregate data on race. It also establishes guidance for the allocation of multiple race responses for use in civil rights monitoring and enforcement.

This site is the Census Bureau's Frequently Asked Questions page. Questions submitted to the Census Bureau and their answers are posted for everyone to make use of. You can narrow down the questions you see by choosing a topic or sub-topic.

The purpose of this document is to provide information about changes to the questions on race and Hispanic origin that have occurred for the Census 2000.

This guide is compiled by staff at the Minnesota Legislative Reference Library. It is intended to provide an introduction to the redistricting process and direct users to the wide variety of reports and data available from the Minnesota Legislature.

Societies, Agencies, and Organizations

Official Agency & Organization Websites

Gateway to official Census 2000 information.

This page includes, for data released so far, comparisons between 1990 and 2000 by neighborhood.

The State Demographic Center provides yearly estimates of Minnesota's population and long-range projections every 10 years. The center analyzes and distributes data from the federal government and other sources. Link from here to data products and services from the State Demographic Center, Minnesota's liaison to the U.S. Bureau of the Census.

Statistics and Data

Statistical Resources

This is a data distribution system from the Bureau of the Census that will be the primary distribution locale for 2000 Census data. American FactFinder offers the capability to browse, search, and map data from many Census Bureau sources: the 1990 Census, the 1997 Economic Census, the American Community Survey, and other sources.

Census 2000 Summary file 1

Summary File 1 contains population and housing data including: sex, age, race, Hispanic or Latino origin, household relationship, and household and family characteristics. Housing items include occupancy status and tenure (whether the unit is owner- or renter-occupied).

The fundamental reason for conducting the decennial census of the United States is to apportion the members of the House of Representatives among the 50 states. A state's resident population consists of those persons "usually resident" in that state (where they live and sleep most of the time). A state's apportionment population is the sum of its resident population and a count of overseas U.S. military and federal civilian employees (and their dependents living with them) allocated to the state, as reported by the employing federal agencies.

A profile includes four tables that provide various demographic, social, economic, and housing characteristics for the United States, states, counties, minor civil divisions in selected states, places, metropolitan areas, American Indian and Alaska Native areas, Hawaiian home lands and congressional districts (106th Congress).

Census 2000 Summary File 2

Summary File 2 contains population and housing data based on Census 2000 questions asked on the short form of everyone. SF 2 contains 47 tables: 36 population tables and 11 housing tables. What makes SF 2 special is that tables are repeated for up to 249 race and Hispanic origin groups, provided there are 100 or more people in the group for a particular area.
Population items age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, and household type and relationship. Housing tenure is also included.

Census 2000 Summary File 3

Contains data for all states. Population tables cover subjects as ancestry, citizenship, educational attainment, grandparents as caregivers, income, language, veteran status, and more. The housing tables cover subjects as kitchen/plumbing facilities, number of rooms, telephone service, vehicle availability, utilities, insurance, mortgages, taxes, and fuel costs.

Census 2000 Summary File 4

Population items include marital status, disability, educational attainment, occupation, income, ancestry, veteran status, and many other characteristics. Particularly detailed is the occupation and industry data. Housing items include tenure (whether the unit is owner- or renter-occupied), occupancy status, housing value, mortgage status, price asked, and more. Each table is iterated for 336 population groups: the total population, 132 race groups, 78 American Indian and Alaska Native tribe categories (reflecting 39 individual tribes), 39 Hispanic or Latino groups, and 86 ancestry groups where the geographic areas have a population of more than 100 persons in that group and where they have 50 or more unweighted sample cases of the specific population.

The PHC-1, Summary Population and Housing Characteristics, report series provides data based on the 100-percent questions. The subjects are age, Hispanic or Latino origin, household relationship, race, sex, tenure (owner- or renter-occupied), and vacancy characteristics. Land area measurements and population density also are provided.

The PHC-2, Summary Social, Economic, and Housing Characteristics, report series provides sample data based on both the 100-percent and the sample questions. Sample subjects include place of birth; residence in 1995; language; educational attainment and school enrollment; veteran status; disability status; employment status; journey to work; work status, earnings, income, and poverty status in 1999; physical housing characteristics; units in structure; fuel and equipment characteristics; owner and renter household characteristics, such as year owner moved into unit; home value; contract and gross rent; and mortgage and rental cost characteristics.

This new site from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) acts as a gateway to geographic and demographic data related to school districts, children, and K-12 education. From the front page of the site, users will be able to access data from the 2000 Census, the 1999 Census, intercensal school district demographic data, and maps of school districts. These latter two functions are not yet available; the maps are still being developed, and the intercensal data "provided limited scope with regard to subject matter updates to the Census 2000 data." Even in its nascent stages, however, this site is useful for those looking for data regarding US schools. The help documentation and online explanations are easy to understand, and the data can be downloaded in comma separated value files or accessed online. One particularly helpful feature is the district profiles page in the Census 2000 section, where users can compare data on school districts using drop- down menus. [TK]From The Scout Report, Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2001.

Style Manuals and Writing Guides

Bibliography Software

RefWorks is a web-based citation manager that allows you to create your own databases of citations by importing references from MNCAT and other databases, and then in seconds automatically generate bibliographies in all major styles (MLA, APA, Turabian, Chicago, etc.).

Style Manuals

This guide shows users how use a standard citation format, MLA, to cite government information.

Complete Guide to Citing Government Information Resources

Covers citation forms for federal, state, regional, and local documents as well as those of some international bodies.

Library Information

Government Publications Library

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West Bank, Minneapolis Campus