Academic writing includes incorporating the words of others (including quotes and summaries) from experts in your own writing. Many different styles exist for citing the words and ideas of others in your own writing. If you are not sure which style can be used for your assignment, ask your instructor. Below are resources to help.
What are citations?
Citations indicate which ideas are taken from others and from whom those ideas were taken; in other words, they give credit where credit is due. Citations allow researchers to find, read and comment on each others' sources.
- What are Citations? from the University of Minnesota Libraries
- Citation: A very brief introduction (2 mins)
When do I need to cite a source?
If you use, quote, paraphrase, summarize, or otherwise refer to the work of others, you need to cite the source of that information. This will allow the reader to locate the work (e.g. article, book, website, film, etc.) to which you are referring and help you avoid plagiarism.
- Quoting and Paraphrasing Sources from the Writing Center at UW-Madison
Citation tools and database features
- Many databases (like Academic Search Premier, search on library homepage, Google Scholar) offer the option of creating your references in common style. Look for this as you save, e-mail or print your references. (Learn more).
- Tools including Mendeley, Zotero, and EndNote help you to save and organize your PDFs and references, create bibliographies, and create in-text citation with word-processing software (like Microsoft Word Or Google docs) in hundreds of styles.
Free citation generators
Create one citation at a time using these sites:
Online guides to common styles
- Citation Resources (APA, MLA, Chicago) from Purdue University
- Documentation quicktips (APA, MLA, Chicago, CSE) from Center for Writing at the University of Minnesota
- Citation Styles for Research Papers (APA, MLA, Turabian, Chicago, AMA) from Long Island University (try "color coded guides")
- Images: Images Citing guide from the University of Washingon
How do I cite a YouTube or online video? from Berkeley College
Citing Music, Scores, Audio recordings, etc. (Turabian/Chicago) from DePauw University
Additional styles (ACS, IEEE, ASA, etc.) are available from Concordia University Libraries
What is an annotated bibliography?
An annotated bibliography, in addition to all of the citation information for a source, also includes descriptive and critical information about the source. The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader of the relevance and quality of the sources.
- Annotated Bibliography from Purdue University
- Annotated Bibliographies from the University of North Carolina
Print and online style manuals
Use these print and online guides for more in-depth guidance on style and documentation.
- MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (LB2369 .G53) Find in ULibraries
- Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (BF76.7 .P83) Find in ULibraries
- Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (T11 .S386) Find in ULibraries
- The Chicago Manual of Style
- A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago style for Students and Researchers (Turabian) (LB2369 .T8) Find in ULibraries