Citation Guides and Style Manuals

Academic writing includes incorporating quotes from experts and the words of others in your own writing. Many different styles exist for citing the words and ideas of others in your own writing. Below are resources to help.

When do I need to cite a source?

If you use, quote, paraphrase, summarize, or otherwise refer to the work of others, you need to cite the source of that information. This will allow the reader to locate the work (e.g. article, book, website, film, etc.) to which you are referring and help you avoid plagiarism.

Online Guides to Common Styles

Additional styles (ACS, IEEE, ASA, etc.) are available from Concordia University Libraries

Citation Management Tools

  • Tools including Mendeley, RefWorks, Zotero, and EndNote allow you to save and organize your references, create bibliographies, and create in-text citation with word-processing software in hundreds of styles.
  • Many databases (like Academic Search Premier) offer the option of creating your references in common style. Look for this as you save, e-mail or print your references. (Learn more)
  • When you use "FindIt", you can create a citation in APA, CBE (CSE), Chicago or MLA style. Just follow the "Copy Citation" or link.

Free Citation Generators

Create one citation at a time using these sites:

What is an Annotated Bibliography?

An annotated bibliography, in addition to all of the citation information for a source, also includes descriptive and critical information about the source. The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader of the relevance and quality of the sources.

Print and Online Style Manuals

Use these print and online guides for more in-depth guidance on style and documentation.