Academic writing includes incorporating the words of others (including quotes and summaries) from experts in your own writing. Many different styles exist for citing the words and ideas of others in your own writing. If you are not sure which style can be used for your assignment, ask your instructor. Below are resources to help.

What are citations?

Citations indicate which ideas are taken from others and from whom those ideas were taken; in other words, they give credit where credit is due. Citations allow researchers to find, read and comment on each others' sources.

When do I need to cite a source?

If you use, quote, paraphrase, summarize, or otherwise refer to the work of others, you need to cite the source of that information. This will allow the reader to locate the work (e.g. article, book, website, film, etc.) to which you are referring and help you avoid plagiarism.

Citation tools and database features

  • Many databases (like Academic Search Premier, search on library homepage, Google Scholar) offer the option of creating your references in common style. Look for this as you save, e-mail or print your references. (Learn more).
  • Tools including Mendeley, Zotero, and EndNote help you to save and organize your PDFs and references, create bibliographies, and create in-text citation with word-processing software (like Microsoft Word Or Google docs) in hundreds of styles.

Click the cite link in Google Scholar.




Click the cite link in Libraries search.

Free citation generators

Create one citation at a time using these sites:

Online guides to common styles

Additional styles (ACS, IEEE, ASA, etc.) are available from Concordia University Libraries

What is an annotated bibliography?

An annotated bibliography, in addition to all of the citation information for a source, also includes descriptive and critical information about the source. The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader of the relevance and quality of the sources.

Print and online style manuals

Use these print and online guides for more in-depth guidance on style and documentation.