Academic writing includes incorporating quotes from experts and the words of others in your own writing. Many different styles exist for citing the words and ideas of others in your own writing. Below are resources to help.
What are Citations?
Citations indicate which ideas are taken from others and from whom those ideas were taken; in other words, they give credit where credit is due. Citations allow researchers to find, read and comment on each others' sources.
- What are Citations? from the University of Minnesota Libraries
When do I need to cite a source?
If you use, quote, paraphrase, summarize, or otherwise refer to the work of others, you need to cite the source of that information. This will allow the reader to locate the work (e.g. article, book, website, film, etc.) to which you are referring and help you avoid plagiarism.
- Quoting and Paraphrasing Sources from the Writing Center at UW-Madison
Online Guides to Common Styles
- Citation Resources (APA, MLA, Chicago) from Purdue University
- Documentation quicktips (APA, MLA, Chicago, CSE) from Center for Writing at the University of Minnesota
- Citation Styles for Research Papers (APA, MLA, Turabian, Chicago, AMA) from Long Island University (try "color coded guides")
- Citing Images, Performance, Film, and Video Resources (Attribution, APA, MLA) from the University of California - Irvine
- Citing Music, Scores, Audio recordings, etc. (Turabian/Chicago) from DePauw University
Additional styles (ACS, IEEE, ASA, etc.) are available from Concordia University Libraries
Citation Management Tools
- Tools including Mendeley, Zotero, and EndNote allow you to save and organize your references, create bibliographies, and create in-text citation with word-processing software in hundreds of styles.
- Many databases (like Academic Search Premier) offer the option of creating your references in common style. Look for this as you save, e-mail or print your references. (Learn more)
- When you use "FindIt", you can create a citation in APA, CBE (CSE), Chicago or MLA style. Just follow the "Copy Citation" or link.
Free Citation Generators
Create one citation at a time using these sites:
What is an Annotated Bibliography?
An annotated bibliography, in addition to all of the citation information for a source, also includes descriptive and critical information about the source. The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader of the relevance and quality of the sources.
- Annotated Bibliography from Purdue University
- Annotated Bibliographies from the University of North Carolina
Print and Online Style Manuals
Use these print and online guides for more in-depth guidance on style and documentation.
- MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (LB2369 .G53) Find in ULibraries
- Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (BF76.7 .P83) Find in ULibraries
- Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (T11 .S386) Find in ULibraries
- The Chicago Manual of Style
- A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago style for Students and Researchers (Turabian) (LB2369 .T8) Find in ULibraries